去德国留学一年多少钱

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  Higher education in Germany is mainly funded by the state and as such it is literally free of charge for domestic and international students alike. The German higher education system consists of around 400 institutions, divided into public “tuition free” institutions that host over 2.4 million students across Germany, and a smaller number of private institutions that enroll less than 5% of the total student body.

  In the past decade, Germany has been politically struggling to ban tuition fees throughout the whole country; yet as a decentralized federal country it was difficult to bring all 16 of the federations to agree. In 2014, Germany’s 16 states abolished tuition fees for undergraduate students at all public German universities. This means that currently both domestic and international undergraduates at public universities in Germany can study for free, with just a small fee to cover administration and other costs per semester.

  This good fortune may not last though. In December 2016 it was announced the south-west state of Baden-Württemberg will be reintroducing tuition fees for non-EU students, starting from autumn 2017, and it’s possible other states will follow suit in the coming years.

  For now, the low fees certainly help to make studying in Germany an attractive option for prospective students, and the country has previously been ranked as the fourth most popular destination for international students in the world (after the US, UK and Australia).

  德国高等教育的经费主要由国家支出,因此就是你能从字面上读到的意思,德国本国学生和国际学生都可以一视同仁地享受免学费的福利。德国高等教育体系由大约400所院校组成,分为公立“免学费”院校,在整个德国有超越240万学生就读,此外还有少数的私立学校,在读学生数量少于总学生数量的5%。

  在过去十年里,德国在政治上一直努力在全国实行废除学费的政策,但是德国作为一个分散的联邦制国家,很难使所有16个联邦同意。在2014年,德国的16个州也实行了向所有在德国公立大学就读的本科学生免除学费的政策。这就意味着,不管是德国本国学生还是国际学生,现在去德国留学只要在公立大学就读本科学位课程都能免除学费,你去德国留学只需要支付一小笔管理费,并且自己负担每学期的其他费用就行了。

  这个好运可能不会持续太久了。在2016年12月,德国西南部的巴登-符腾堡州宣布将从2017年秋季学期开始,重新向非欧盟学生收取学费,并且其他的州可能在未来几年里也效仿巴登-符腾堡州。

  就目前的情况来看,这种低收费的政策无疑有助于吸引更多潜在的学生前来德国留学,使得德国成为越来越受欢迎的留学目的地,德国之前被评为全世界范围内第四受国际学生欢迎的留学目的地国家,仅次于美国英国澳大利亚

  Germany is a country characterized by variety. Trendy and modern Berlin can seem a world away from the more traditional and conservative Munich. The gleaming skyscrapers of Frankfurt form a stark contrast to quaint Heidelberg. And if bustling and fast-paced Hamburg becomes too much, you can always retreat to the peaceful and picturesque Middle Rhine region.

  Universities in Germany offer plenty of choice, including some of the most prestigious institutions in Western Europe. Germany’s highest ranked university in the QS World University Rankings® 2016-2017 is Technische Universität München (ranked 60th in the world), followed by Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München (joint 68th) and Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg (72nd).

  Beyond that, every major German city you can think of has at least one university ranked among the world’s best. A total of 15 German universities make the world’s top 250, and 31 are included within the world’s top 500. This establishes Germany well within the world’s higher education elite.

  In addition to world-class universities, Germany also offers high quality of life, relatively low tuition fees, extensive support and scholarship schemes for international students, and decent post-graduation employment prospects. So it’s easy to see why so many choose to study in Germany each year.

  德国是一个非常多样化的国家,这里有时髦和现代的柏林,也有更传统和保守的慕尼黑,法兰克福闪闪发光的摩天大楼与古典的海德堡行程了鲜明的对比。如果热闹和快节奏的汉堡让你觉得变化太多,你也能撤退到平静和风景如画的中东莱茵地区。

  德国有许多的大学可供你选择,包括一些在西欧地区最负盛名的大学。德国在2016-2017年QS世界大学排名中排名最高的大学是慕尼黑工业大学(世界排名第60位),紧随其后的是慕尼黑大学(并列第68位)和海德堡大学(第72位)。

  除此之外,每一个你能想到的德国主要的城市都有至少一所大学进入世界最佳大学之列。总共有15所德国大学位于世界大学排名前250名之内,并且还有31所大学位于世界大学排名前500名之内。这也使得德国成为世界高等教育精英国家中的一员。

  除了世界一流的大学之外,德国还有高质量的生活,相对较低的学费,为国际留学生们提供的广泛的支持和奖学金项目,毕业后光明就业前景。所以你也很容易明白每年为什么这么多人选择去德国留学了。

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  Cost of living in Germany

  While many students can study in Germany for free, living expenses are unavoidable. The cost of living in Germany is more expensive in some areas than others – Munich, for example, is considered the most expensive German city to live in, with living costs averaging about €10,800 (~US$11,645) per year. By comparison, the average annual living costs in Germany are around €9,600 (~US$10,350).

  Rent will be your largest monthly expense, though this is cheaper if you live in a shared flat (average rent of €298/~US$320 per month) or a student hall of residence (€240/~US$260 per month).

  Based on data from DAAD, other average monthly costs are as follows:

  -€165 (~US$180) for food

  -€52 (~US$56) for clothes

  -€82 (~US$90) for transport

  -€33 (~US$36) for telephone, internet and TV license

  -€30 (~US$33) for work/study materials

  -€68 (~US$73) for leisure activities

  To find living expenses for specific cities in Germany (and compare them to the average costs in your home city) Numbeo is a useful tool.

  You won’t need a visa to study in Germany if you’re an EU national or citizen of Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway or Switzerland. Otherwise, expect to pay around €60 (~US$65) for your student visa, but there are also fee reductions or waivers for Schengen visas. In order to fulfill the visa requirements, you will need to show proof you have, or have access to, around €8,700 (~US$9,390) per year or €725 (~US$780) per month to cover your living costs.

  For more information on getting a German student visa, see this article.

  You will also need health insurance as a pre-condition of registering at a German university. If you’re a resident of a country within the EU or EEA, there should be a social security agreement between your country and Germany. This means that if you have public health insurance, you should be covered in Germany as well (full list here). If your health insurance isn’t valid in Germany, expect to pay around €80 (~US$86) per month to cover this.

  德国留学的生活费

  虽然很多学生都能够免费在德国留学,但是德国留学期间的生活费也是不可避免的。在德国有些区域的生活成本要比另外的区域更高——举个例子来说,慕尼黑相对来说是德国生活最昂贵的城市,平均生活费用为10,800欧元(约合11,645美元)每年。做个比较,在德国的平均生活费用为9,600欧元(约合10,350美元)每年。

  房子租金会成为你每个月最大的一笔开支,但是如果你跟别人一起合租或者住在学生宿舍的话,租金会要便宜一些,合租的平均租金为298欧元/约合320美元每个月,学生宿舍的平均租金为240欧元/约合260美元每个月。

  根据德意志学术交流中心(DAAD)的数据显示,其他每个月的平均费用还有以下几个方面:

  -165欧元(约合180美元)的餐食费用

  -52欧元(约合56美元)的衣服购买费用

  -82欧元(约合90美元)的交通费用

  -33欧元(约合36美元)的电话、互联网和电视许可证费用

  -30欧元(约合33美元) 的工作\学习材料费用

  -68欧元(约合73美元)的休闲活动开支

  如果你想了解德国某一个城市具体的生活费,以及与你家乡的城市平均生活费用进行比较的话,那么你可以参考Numbeo。

  如果你是来自欧盟国家或者冰岛列支敦士登挪威或者瑞士这些国家的公民,那么你不需要留学签证就可以来德国留学,否则你就需要花费大约60欧元(约合65美金)的费用来申请你的留学签证,但是申根签证也可以享受费用降低或者免除的福利。为了满足德国留学签证申请的要求,你需要证明你自己拥有或者有权拥有大约8,700欧元(约合9,390美元) 每年或者725欧元(约合780美元)每个月的金额,用于支付你在德国留学期间的生活费用。

  如果你想了解有关申请德国留学签证的更多信息,请查看德国留学签证申请要求

  如果你想要在德国大学注册,你还需要购买健康保险,这是在德国大学注册的前提条件。如果你是一个来自欧盟或者欧洲经济区国家的居民,那么你的国家和德国之间应该有社会保障协议。这就意味着,如果你已经购买了公共医疗保险,那么你在德国留学期间也可以同样享受这个保险。如果你不确定你是否能够享受,请在来德国留学之前就资讯清楚。如果你的健康保险在德国是无效的,那么你每个月需要支付大约80欧元(约合86美元)的健康保险费。

  Undergraduate costs to study in Germany

  Although you can study for free at public German universities as an undergraduate, there is a charge per semester for enrolment, confirmation and administration. This is typically no more than €300 (~US$320) per semester, but varies depending on the university.

  There may be an additional charge to purchase a “Semesterticket”, which covers public transport expenses for six months – the price varies depending upon which Semesterticket option you choose. If you exceed the standard period of study by more than four semesters, you may also face a long-term fee charge, which could be as much as €500 (~US$540) per semester.

  Most universities in Germany are public. Private institutions are usually dependent on tuition fees for their funding (though some also receive support from foundations), and set their own fees, which can be anything up to €20,000 a year (~US$21,560).

  The Federal Student Financial Aid Program (BAföG: Bundesausbildungsförderungsgesetz) can be used by both German nationals and EU students, as well as some foreigners under select conditions. Generally, this aid is for those under 30 years old (under 35 if you’re studying for a master’s degree), but exceptions can be made depending on circumstance. The BAföG is usually split in two, with 50% taking the form of a state grant and the other half being an interest-free loan that must be paid back in instalments when the maximum period of assistance expires.

  德国本科留学的费用

  虽然你可以在德国的公立大学免收学费进行本科学习,但是你仍然需要支付一些费用用于每学期的注册、确认和管理,具体收费标准取决于你所就读的大学,这笔费用通常不超过300欧元(约合320美元)每学期 。

  除此之外,可能还会有“学期优惠乘车票”的额外费用,这个费用包括了你在六个月的时间内搭乘公共交通的费用——价格取决于你选择哪一种类型的“学期优惠乘车票”。如果你在德国留学的时间超过了四个学期的标准时间,你也可能会需要支付“超期费”,这笔费用可能会高达500欧元(约合540美元) 每学期。

  在德国大多数的大学都是公立大学。私立大学通常靠从学生那里收取的学费来提供大学运作的资金,尽管有些私立大学也会得到基金会的支持。私立大学会自行设定学费数额,可能会高达20,000欧元(约合21,560美元)一年。

  联邦学生财政援助项目(BAföG: Bundesausbildungsförderungsgesetz) 是为德国本国学生以及欧盟国家学生准备的,但是同样也包括满足条件的外国学生。一般来说,这种援助是为那些30岁以下的学生,或者35岁以下打算攻读硕士学位的学生提供的。但是也可能有例外情况,具体视情况而定。联邦学生财政援助项目通常分为两部分,50%是以国家补助金的形式,另外一半是无息贷款,当最长的援助期满之后,学生必须分期偿还。

  Master’s and postgraduate costs to study in Germany

  Master’s degrees at German universities are usually free if they are classed as “consecutive” – i.e. following directly on from a related bachelor’s degree gained in Germany. Again, there is a small charge per semester for enrolment, confirmation and administration, plus a Semesterticket. Tuition fees for “non-consecutive” master’s degrees, for those who have gained their bachelor’s degree elsewhere in the world, vary between universities and may be around €5,000 (~US$5,400) per year at public institutions and up to €30,000 (~US$32,410) at private German universities.

  For example, Germany’s top-ranked institution, the Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, lists fees for non-consecutive master’s degrees ranging from €2,500 (US$2,700) per semester for a Master of Arts in American Studies up to €7,000 (US$7,560) per semester for a Master of Science in Health Economics.

  At PhD level, tuition is once again free at all universities in Germany – for the first six semesters at least. As at all levels of study, PhD students are also required to make a semester contribution of no more than €300 for administration and other costs.

  德国硕士留学的费用

  如果你属于“连续就读”的学生——即你的学士学位就是在德国大学获得的,并且你直接在德国大学就读跟你学士学位专业相关的硕士学位,那么你在德国大学就读硕士学位就是免收学费的。与在德国大学读本科一样,虽然免收学费,但是每学期还是有少量的注册费、确认费以及管理费,再加上学期优惠乘车票的费用。但是,如果你不是“连续就读”的学生,就是说你是在世界别的国家获得的学士学位,你在德国公立大学就读硕士学位的学费大约为5,000欧元(约合5,400美元) 每学期,在私立大学就读的学费则高达30,000欧元(约合32,410美元) 每年。

  举个例子来说,在德国排名顶尖的大学,海德堡大学,非连续就读的硕士学位列出的费用是,美国研究专业文科硕士的学费为2,500欧元(2,700美元)每学期,卫生经济学专业理科硕士的学费为7,000欧元(7,560美元)每学期。

  如果你是在德国就读博士学位,那么所有的德国大学又都是免学费的——至少是最开始的六个学期免收学费。就像在德国大学就读其他等级一样,博士学生每学期也需要缴纳不超过300欧元的管理费以及其他费用。

  Scholarships to study in Germany

  The German Academic Exchange Service, otherwise known as the DAAD (Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst), provides support for German and international students to gain funding to live and study in Germany for free or at a more affordable cost.

  DAAD scholarships to study in Germany are offered to German and international students of all levels, as well as academics and researchers. To find relevant scholarships to study in Germany, you can search based on keywords, study level, country of origin and subject.

  Another useful resource is the Federal Ministry of Education and Research or BMBF (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung), which hosts a site dedicated to providing information on scholarships to study in Germany.

  You can also check out our own listing of Scholarships to Study in Germany.

  Figures contained in this article are averages. The amount you pay will fluctuate depending on the length of your program, your level of study, the German state (Länder) you live in and whether your university is private or public.

  德国留学的奖学金

  德意志学术交流中心,也被称为DAAD(Deutscher Akademischer Austausch Dienst),为德国本国学生以及国际留学生提供了支持,让这些学生能够获得资金补助,并且能够免费或者以更能够负担得起的费用在德国学习和生活。

  德意志学术交流中心的德国留学奖学金是为所有等级的德国本国学生和国际留学生提供的,学者和研究人员也可以享受。如果你想了解德国留学相关的奖学金,你可以根据关键词、你的学习等级、原籍国以及专业等分类条件来进行搜索。

  德国联邦教育和科研部或者BMBF (Bundesministerium für Bildung und Forschung)也是你了解德国留学奖学金的另一个非常有用的资源,这里建立了一个网站,提供各种去德国留学奖学金的信息,你也可以搜索了解。

  此外,你还可以咨询你所申请的大学。

  文中所提到的数额都是平均数。你具体需要支付的费用将取决于你的课程长度、你的学习等级、你所居住的德国的州以及你所就读的大学是公立大学还是私立大学。

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