字典2017-09-11 英国留学英国谢菲尔德大学英国留学申请

学校名称: 英国谢菲尔德大学 The University of Sheffield








  The University grew out of the Sheffield Medical School (founded in 1828),  Firth College (1879) and the Sheffield Technical School (1884). These three  institutions came together in 1897 to form the University College of Sheffield,  which in turn became the University of Sheffield in 1905.Academic departments  are grouped into six faculties: Arts and Humanities; Engineering; Medicine,  Dentistry and Health; Science; Social Sciences; and International Faculty, City  College, Thessaloniki, Greece.Our President and Vice-Chancellor’s  Introduction,This wonderful academic community, the University of Sheffield, is  such an important place for all the communities that we serve across our region,  the UK and the world. And this is a crucial time for us to be thinking about our  strategy.In writing it, we have taken the highest and finest ideas that have  emerged from our discussions and woven them into a pattern for our future. We  talk about the University of Sheffield Strategic Plan in communal terms – ‘our  University, our future, our plan’. But I should be clear by who ‘we’ are.Our  University does not exist for itself alone, and it never has. It was founded by  individuals and groups who had a profound belief in the public value of  universities for the economy, for health, for changes in the lives of children  and of a community.To serve the people,Our University was envisioned as a place  where knowledge would transform lives for the better.And our purpose remains the  same, with the strategy to – as necessary – always be ready to reconfigure  around that need.Our strategy is therefore more than simply ours as an academic  community – it serves our wider world. And it is open and pragmatic – we are  ready to try different approaches to offer the education and scholarship the  world needs. We will be bold where we should be, while preserving what matters  most.

  Who is the University for? What benefits do we offer in the 21st century?  These are the questions that truly matter, and they should not be separated from  discussions of cost, funding, expansion or change.You’ll see our own aspirations  and values in this plan – but also what others value about us and the challenges  that are being set by our students, our society, our economy and indeed the  world. In addition, we are not deaf to the challenges that are being set to us  by government, by economic and demographic change or by technology.Our values  are strong, but they are not holding us back from change. Far from it. Time and  again, it is these very values which are repeatedly putting Sheffield at the  forefront of translational research, new routes in higher education and  questioning boundaries between scholarship and the wider world. Our strategy is  to build on this.

  谢菲尔德大学是从谢菲尔德医学院(成立于1828年)、Firth学院(1879年)、谢菲尔德技术学校(1884年)发展而来。这些三个机构于1897年合并在一起,形成了谢菲尔德大学学院,1905年成为谢菲尔德大学。学术部门分为六个系:艺术与人文学科、工程、医学、牙科与健康、科学、社会科学、和希腊塞萨洛尼基城市学院国际学院。谢菲尔德大学这个美好的学术团体是我们在整个地区、英国和世界各地服务的所有社区的重要场所。这是我们考虑我们战略的关键时刻  。就像我们所陈述的那样,我们采取了从我们的讨论中出现的最高和最好的想法,并把它们编成了我们未来的模式。我们以公共话语 -  “我们大学,我们的未来,我们的计划”,谈论谢菲尔德大学战略计划。但我应该明白谁是我们的。我们大学本身并不存在,而且从来没有。它是由个人和团体创立的,他们非常相信大学对经济的公共价值、健康、儿童生活和社区的变化。为人民服务,我们的大学被设想为知识将改变生活的地方更好。我们的目的仍然是一样的,随着战略  - 必要时,总是准备好重新配置这种需求。因此,我们的战略不仅仅是我们作为一个学术界 - 它服务于我们更广泛的世界。

  这是公开务实的 -  我们准备尝试不同的方法来提供世界需要的教育和奖学金。在保持最重要的事情的同时,我们将是大胆的。大学是谁?我们在21世纪有什么好处?这些是真正重要的问题,不应与成本、资金、扩张或变化的讨论分开。在这个计划中,你会看到我们自己的愿望和价值观  -还有别人对我们的看法以及我们的学生、社会、经济和世界所设定的挑战。此外,我们不会因为经济和人口变化或技术而受到政府的挑战。但他们并没有让我们摆脱变革,我们的价值观是强大的。谢菲尔德置于翻译研究的前沿,高等教育的新路线,以及对奖学金与更广泛世界之间的边界的质疑都是非常有价值的。我们的策略正是建立在这一点上的。



  The University Arms, whose background colour is azure, contains a  gold-edged open book at its centre, on which is inscribed Disce Doce (Learn and  Teach). On either side is a sheaf of eight silver arrows, which is derived from  the shield of old Sheffield. The gold crown is the Crown of Success and the  White Rose of York denotes the University's home county. The scroll carries the  motto of Firth College, Rerum Cognoscere Causas (To Discover the Causes of  Things; from Virgil's Georgics II, 490).The coat of arms should not be confused  with the University's logo, which appears at the top left of this page. The logo  consists of a redrawn version of the coat of arms set alongside the University's  name in our own distinctive Stephenson font, on a white background. Introduced  in 2005, the University's centenary year, the logo complements but does not  supersede the coat of arms, which remains the University's official heraldic  symbol.Reproduction of the University's Coat of Arms is restricted by copyright  to formal University of Sheffield documents. It may not be used by external  organisations in their marketing activities, whether in hard copy or on the  web.The University of Sheffield developed from three local institutions: the  Sheffield School of Medicine, Firth College and the Sheffield Technical School.  The School of Medicine, founded 1828, was by far the oldest. Its early history  was very insecure and it was saved from collapse by the opening of Firth  College, which took over the teaching of all basic science subjects to medical  students.Firth College was one of a group of university colleges founded in the  later 19th century. It developed out of the Cambridge University Extension  Movement, a scheme designed to bring university teaching to the large towns and  cities of England, most of which lacked any university provision. The success of  these courses in Sheffield led Mark Firth, a local steel manufacturer, to  establish the College in 1879 as a centre for teaching Arts and Science  subjects.

  大学的徽章,其背景颜色是天蓝色的,在其中心包含一个金边开放的书,在其上刻有Disce  Doce(学习和教学)。在任何一边是一捆八银箭,这是从旧谢菲尔德的盾牌衍生出来的。金冠是成功冠军,约克的白玫瑰是大学的家乡。卷轴上载有Firth  College,Rerum Cognoscere Causas(发现事物的原因;维吉尔的Georgics  II,490)的座右铭。徽章不应与大学徽标混淆,该徽标出现在本页的左上角。该标志包括与我们自己独特的斯蒂芬森字体大学名称一起的重绘版本,在白色背景上。2005年,大学诞生了一年,这个标志补充被正式的补充上去,但并没有取代徽章,这仍然是大学的官方纹章象征。大学的徽章复制受正版谢菲尔德大学文献版权的限制。外部组织在营销活动中可能不会使用它,无论是在硬拷贝还是在网络上。谢菲尔德大学由三家当地机构发展起来:谢菲尔德医学院,弗斯学院和谢菲尔德技术学校。医学院成立于1828年,是迄今为止最古老的的医学院。它的早期历史非常不安全,由Firth学院接管了所有基础科学课程的教学给医学生。Firth学院是19世纪后期成立的一批大学院校之一。它是由剑桥大学延伸运动发展而来的,该计划旨在将大学教学带到英格兰的大城市和城市,其中大部分缺乏大学课程。谢菲尔德这些课程的成功率领导了当地一家钢铁制造商马克·福斯(Mark  Firth),于1879年成立了该学院,将其作为艺术和科学课程的教学中心。


  History of the University

  The Sheffield Technical School,The Sheffield Technical School was the  product of local concern about the need for better technical training of the men  responsible for running the great industries of Sheffield, particularly  steelmaking. A movement was started within Firth College to collect funds to  create a technical department, which was established in 1884 as the Sheffield  Technical School. In 1886 the School moved to new premises on the site of the  old Grammar School at St George's Square.In 1897, the three institutions were  amalgamated by Royal Charter to form the University College of Sheffield. This  step was part of the plan to link up with the Victoria University, a federation  of the University Colleges at Manchester, Liverpool and Leeds.

  By 1900, however, the Federal University was disintegrating and within a  few years independent universities were formed from the three University  Colleges.

  On 31 May 1905 the University of Sheffield was granted its Royal Charter,  and in July the new Firth Court Building on Western Bank was opened by King  Edward VII and Queen Alexandra. St George's Square remained the centre of  Applied Science departments, with Arts, Medicine and Science being housed at  Western Bank.

  The University in 1905,At the time of the University's foundation in 1905  there were 114 full-time students reading for degrees in Arts, Pure Science,  Medicine and Applied Science. In 1919 when returning ex-servicemen were admitted  in large numbers, the full-time student figure rose to a short-lived peak of  about 1,000. By then the Faculty of Applied Science had split into Engineering  and Metallurgy; the University's first Hall of Residence (the original  Stephenson Hall) had been established; and the Edgar Allen library had opened  (1909).At that time the University was as committed to non-degree teaching as to  teaching full-time students. Courses covered not only many conventional academic  subjects but also topics as diverse as cow-keeping, railway economics, mining  and razor-grinding. During the First World War some of these were replaced by  teaching of (and participation in) munitions making, medical appliances design  and production, translation and politics。Between the two wars full-time student  numbers stabilised at about 750 and expansion into new areas of specialist  teaching and research continued slowly. The Second World War brought with it new  areas of specialist research and training - in, for example, radar, dietary and  vitamin studies, production of anaesthetics and chemicals (as substitutes for  materials previously imported from Europe), magnetism, fuel production and  economy, naval cartography, glass manufacture and English language teaching.

  Since the Second World War,Since the Second World War, many older houses  have been brought into academic use and major new buildings have been  constructed - the Main Library in 1959, and the Arts Tower, Hicks Building,  Alfred Denny Building, Sir Robert Hadfield Building, Chemical Engineering  Building, University House, five Halls of Residence and the Union of Students in  the 1960s.New buildings for Geography and Psychology followed in the 1970s,  along with the Crookesmoor Building (for Law and Management), the Royal  Hallamshire Hospital, and purpose-built student flats. The next decade saw the  opening of the Octagon Centre, the Sir Henry Stephenson Building (for  engineering), and major extensions at the Northern General Hospital.

  In the 1990s, new premises for the School of Clinical Dentistry, the  Management School, the Division of Education, St George's Library (incorporating  Blackwell's University Bookshop) and St George's Flats and Lecture Theatre were  opened, together with extensions to Stephenson, Halifax, and Tapton Halls of  Residence, and three new blocks of student flats.The Regent Court building,  which houses the Departments of Computer Science and Information Studies and the  Sheffield Centre for Health and Related Research, were also completed. The Union  of Students underwent a £5 million development programme, improving welfare,  social and meetings facilities.Following the University's integration with the  Sheffield and North Trent College of Nursing and Midwifery in 1995, a building  programme provided new facilities for nursing and midwifery teaching and  research. This includes the extension and conversion of the St George's Hospital  site on Winter Street, and the construction of a new building at the Northern  General Hospital.




  1905年5月31日,谢菲尔德大学获得了“皇家宪章”,7月,新西兰西部的Firth  Court大楼由爱德华七世国王和亚历山大女王开幕。圣乔治广场仍然是应用科学部门的中心,艺术,医学和科学在西岸。在大学建立1905年,共有114名全日制学生阅读艺术,纯科学,医学和应用科学学位。在1919年,当返回前军人大量入学时,全日制学生人数上升到约1000人,达到了短暂高峰。届时,应用科学学院又分为工程冶金学院,大学的第一个住所(原斯蒂芬森厅)成立了。  埃德加·艾伦图书馆已经开放(1909年)。当时大学致力于非学位教学,教授全日制学生。课程不仅涵盖了许多常规学科,而且涵盖了保养,铁路经济,采矿和剃刀研磨等多种主题。在第一次世界大战期间,其中一些被替换为(和参与)弹药,医疗器具设计和制作,翻译和政治。两战之间的全日制学生数字稳定在750左右,扩展到新的专业教学和研究领域继续缓慢。第二次世界大战带来了新的专业研究和培训领域,例如雷达、膳食和维生素研究、麻醉剂和化学品的生产(作为以前从欧洲进口的材料的替代品)、磁性、,燃料生产、经济、海军绘图、玻璃制造和英语教学的发展到等等。

  自二战以来,许多老房子已经被引入学术用途,主要的新建筑物已经建成 -  1959年的主图书馆、艺术塔、希克斯大厦、阿尔弗雷德·丹尼大厦、化学工程大楼罗伯特·哈德菲尔德大楼、大学府、五间住宅和六十年代的学生联盟。





  With almost 27,000 of the brightest students from over 140 countries,  learning alongside over 1,200 of the best academics from across the globe, the  University of Sheffield is one of the world’s leading universities.A member of  the UK’s prestigious Russell Group of leading research-led institutions,  Sheffield offers world-class teaching and research excellence across a wide  range of disciplines.Unified by the power of discovery and understanding, staff  and students at the university are committed to finding new ways to transform  the world we live in.Sheffield is the only university to feature in The Sunday  Times 100 Best Not-For-Profit Organisations to Work For 2017 and was voted  number one university in the UK for Student Satisfaction by Times Higher  Education in 2014. In the last decade it has won four Queen’s Anniversary Prizes  in recognition of the outstanding contribution to the United Kingdom’s  intellectual, economic, cultural and social life.Sheffield has six Nobel Prize  winners among former staff and students and its alumni go on to hold positions  of great responsibility and influence all over the world, making significant  contributions in their chosen fields.Global research partners and clients  include Boeing, Rolls-Royce, Unilever, AstraZeneca, Glaxo SmithKline, Siemens  and Airbus, as well as many UK and overseas government agencies and charitable  foundations.



  Size matters: for bacteria, smaller is better for causing superbug  infections

  New research discovers how a common hospital superbug called Enterococcus  faecalis causes infections – currently poorly understood by  scientists.Scientists uncover several complex mechanisms that enable bacteria to  evade the immune system.Findings could be used to develop treatments for E.  faecalis infections, such as heart valve infections and bacteraemia, which can  be life-threatening.Scientists at the University of Sheffield have discovered a  new insight into how one of the most common hospital superbugs causes infections  – something which could be used to develop new antibiotic treatments.

  Short chains of cells (green) escaping immune cells (magenta).The study,  led by researchers from the University of Sheffield’s Department of Molecular  Biology and Biotechnology, investigated how Enterococcus faecalis – bacteria  commonly found in the digestive tracts of humans and multi-resistant to  antibiotics – can out-compete other microorganisms and cause life-threatening  infections E. faecalis is frequently responsible for causing hospital-acquired  infections such as urinary tract infections, heart valve infections and  bacteraemia, however scientists currently have a poor understanding of how this  happens.Now, the University of Sheffield-led research team has discovered  several complex mechanisms controlling the maintenance of the distinctive shape  of E. faecalis that forms cell pairs or short chains of cells.The team has  revealed that the formation of short chains of cells is a crucial factor in  stopping bacteria being recognised as a threat by the immune system. This then  enables infection to spread.Dr Stéphane Mesnage, who led the research from the  University of Sheffield, said: “Our study shows that the formation of short  chains of cells by E. faecalis is a critical step for causing an infection.  Bacteria that form long chains of cells are efficiently recognised and engulfed  by the host immune system, whereas short chains of cells can evade host immune  cells and spread in the host to cause infection.“E. faecalis is an opportunistic  pathogen. It is naturally resistant to a wide range of antibiotics, including  synthetic penicillin derivatives. Following an antibiotic treatment, E. faecalis  can out-compete other microorganisms to cause infection. Our work suggests that  targeting the mechanisms controlling the formation of short chains of cells  could be a novel strategy for developing new treatments to fight E. faecalis  infections.”The research, Bacterial size matters: multiple mechanisms  controlling septum cleavage and diplococcus formation are critical for the  virulence of the opportunistic pathogen Enterococcus faecalis, is published in  PLOS Pathogens: Bacterial size matters (PLOS Pathogens journal)Findings from the  study build on the University of Sheffield’s position at the forefront of  world-class research into infectious diseases. Scientists at the University are  developing radical solutions to the global threat of disease and antimicrobial  resistance as part of signature research projects such as Florey, Imagine and  the Sheffield Antimicrobial Resistance Network (SHAMROK).The University is also  training the next generation of highly skilled scientists through its  undergraduate and postgraduate programmes to find exciting new approaches to  bioscience and tackle some of the world’s biggest biomedical problems.


  新的研究发现,普通医院的超大肠杆菌叫粪肠球菌引起感染 -  目前科学家们的理解很少,科学家发现了几种使细菌逃避免疫系统的复杂机制,研究结果可用于开发粪便粪便感染的治疗方法,如心脏瓣膜感染和细菌性贫血,可能危及生命,谢菲尔德大学的科学家们发现了一种新的见解,即一种最常见的医院超级细菌是如何导致感染的  - 这可以用于开发新的抗生素治疗。短链细胞(绿色)逃避免疫细胞(品红色)。由谢菲尔德分校生物学和生物技术系研究人员领导的这项研究调查了粪便肠球菌 -  人类消化道中通常发现的细菌和耐多种抗生素的细菌是否可以竞争其他微生物并导致危及生命感染。

  粪便粪便常常导致医院获得性感染,如尿路感染,心脏瓣膜感染和细菌性贫血,然而科学家们对如何发生这种情况的了解不大。现在,谢菲尔德大学的研究小组已经发现了几种复杂的机制来控制粪便排泄物的维持,形成细胞对或短链细胞。该小组已经透露,短链细胞的形成是阻止细菌被免疫系统威胁的关键因素。这样可以使感染传播。领导谢菲尔德大学研究的StéphaneMesnage博士说:“我们的研究表明粪肠球菌形成短链细胞是导致感染的关键步骤。形成长链细胞的细菌被宿主免疫系统有效地识别并吞噬,而短链细胞可以逃避宿主免疫细胞并在宿主中扩散以引起感染。“  粪肠球菌是一种条件致病菌。天然抗多种抗生素,包括合成青霉素衍生物。经过抗生素治疗后,粪肠球菌可能会与其他微生物竞争引起感染。我们的工作表明,针对控制细胞短链形成的机制可能是开发新的治疗粪便粪便感染的新策略。“研究,细菌大小问题:控制隔膜切割和双球菌形成的多种机制对机会性病原体粪肠球菌的毒力至关重要,发表于PLOS病原体:细菌大小事项(PLOS病原体杂志)。研究结果建立在谢菲尔德大学在世界级传染病研究领域前列的地位。大学的科学家正在开发针对全球疾病和抗微生物药物耐药性威胁的根本解决方案,作为诸如Florey,Imagine和谢菲尔德抗菌素抗性网络(SHAMROK)等签名研究项目的一部分。该大学还通过其本科和研究生课程培养下一代高科技科学家,以寻找令人兴奋的生物科学新方法,并解决世界上一些最大的生物医学问题。

  Study shows new ambulance service standards could lead to a better response  for patients

  University of Sheffield study provides independent evaluation of new  ambulance service standards announced by NHS England.Research finds new ways of  working can enable ambulance services to use their resources much more  effectively.Up to 750,000 more ambulance vehicles available for immediate  response each year across England.6.5 per cent of the most serious 999 calls  received a faster emergency response when call handlers are allowed a small  amount of extra time to assess calls.A new set of performance targets for the  ambulance service announced by NHS England today (Thursday 13 July 2017) could  allow the ambulance service to use their resources much more efficiently,  according to new research from the University of Sheffield.The study, led by the  Centre for Emergency and Urgent Care Research (CURE) at the University of  Sheffield, has conducted an independent evaluation of the NHS England Ambulance  Response Programme which includes initiatives that allow more time for 999 call  handlers to identify the urgency of calls and type of response required.It has  also assessed the effects of changes, which aim to support early identification  of the most life-threatening calls and to ensure the right clinical response is  made for all 999 calls.The University of Sheffield research team analysed more  than 14 million 999 calls and found that the changes to call handling and  dispatch will enable ambulance services to use their resources much more  effectively, so that up to 750,000 vehicles will be available to immediately  respond to emergency calls each year in England.During the 18 month trial  period, the study found that 6.5 per cent of the most serious calls received a  faster response, more patients who needed to go to hospital got the right  response first time and 75 per cent of calls for cardiac arrest were identified  early in the call - most of these within one minute. The Sheffield evaluation  also found there were no reports of any safety issues for patients.Results from  the study suggest that having more vehicles available reduces the risk of some  patients waiting for long periods of time before help arrives.Janette Turner,  Reader in Emergency and Urgent Care Research at the University of Sheffield, who  led the independent evaluation, said: “Ambulance services in England receive  around 10 million calls a year for a wide range of urgent health problems. For  many years ambulance service performance has been measured using response time  targets but over time these have led to inefficient practices, such as sending  multiple vehicles to the same call in order to stop the clock. It also meant  that sometimes the wrong type of vehicle arrived, for example a car, which  resulted in hidden waits for the right vehicle for patients who need to be taken  to hospital. Chasing targets for some calls also meant unacceptably long waiting  times for others.“Ambulance services in England are under significant pressure  as demand continues to increase. Our study at the University of Sheffield has  shown that the new ambulance service standards announced by NHS England have,  overall, allowed the services testing these changes to provide a consistent  service for people calling 999 despite these challenges.“More long term changes  in, for example, the mix of vehicles needed to support these initiatives will be  required but the early experience indicates this is a step in the right  direction and there is scope for continued further improvement.”


  谢菲尔德大学的研究为NHS英国公布的新型救护车服务标准提供独立评估,研究发现新的工作方式可以使救护车服务更有效地利用其资源,每年可在英格兰每年可提供75万辆救护车,当呼叫处理程序允许少量额外的时间来评估呼叫时,最严重的999个呼叫中的6.5%接收到更快的应急响应,根据谢菲尔德大学的新研究,NHS英格兰今天(2017年7月13日星期四)宣布的救护车服务的新一套性能指标可以使救护服务更有效地利用其资源。该研究由谢菲尔德大学紧急和紧急护理研究中心(CURE)领导,对NHS英国救护车应急计划进行了独立评估,其中包括允许999名呼叫处理程序更多的时间来确定紧急情况呼叫和响应类型。它还评估了变化的影响,其目的是支持早期识别最危及生命的电话,并确保对所有999个电话进行正确的临床响应。谢菲尔德大学的研究团队分析了1400多万999个电话,发现呼叫处理和调度的变化将使救护车服务更有效地使用他们的资源,以便最多可以使用75万辆车辆立即响应紧急呼叫每年在英国。在18个月的试用期间,研究发现,6.5%的最严重的呼叫得到了更快的反应,更多的病人需要去医院得到正确的反应第一次,75%的心脏骤停呼叫被早期识别在电话中  -  大多数在一分钟内。谢菲尔德评估还发现,没有任何关于患者安全问题的报道。研究结果表明,有更多的车辆可以减少一些患者在帮助到达之前长时间等待的风险。领导独立评估的谢菲尔德大学紧急和紧急护理研究读者Janette  Turner说:“英国的救护车服务每年有大约1000万个呼叫,用于广泛的紧急卫生问题。多年来,救护车服务表现已经通过响应时间目标进行了测量,但随着时间的推移,这些导致了低效率的做法,例如发送多个车辆进行相同的呼叫以停止时钟。这也意味着有时错误的车辆到达,例如一辆汽车,导致隐藏的等待正确的车辆需要被带到医院的病人。追查一些电话的目标也意味着别人等待时间长了不可接受。“由于需求不断增加,英国的救护车服务面临重大压力。我们在谢菲尔德大学的研究表明,NHS英国公布的新型救护车服务标准总体上允许服务测试这些变化,为呼吁999的人提供一致的服务,尽管面临这些挑战。“需要更多的长期变化,例如支持这些举措所需的车辆组合,但早期的经验表明,这是朝着正确方向迈出的一步,还有进一步改进的余地。”

  Why did hunter-gatherers first begin farming?

  Maize seeds are now 15 times bigger than the wild variety due to  domestication.New study has important implications for understanding how crops  evolved.The beginnings of agriculture changed human history and has fascinated  scientists for centuries.Researchers from the Grantham Centre for Sustainable  Futures at the University of Sheffield have shed light on how hunter-gatherers  first began farming and how crops were domesticated to depend on  humans.Domesticated crops have been transformed almost beyond recognition in  comparison with their wild relatives – a change that happened during the early  stages of farming in the Stone Age.For grain crops like cereals, the hallmark of  domestication is the loss of natural seed dispersal – seeds no longer fall off  plants but have become dependent on humans or machines to spread them.Professor  Colin Osborne, from the Grantham Centre for Sustainable Futures at the  University of Sheffield, said: “We know very little about how agriculture began,  because it happened 10,000 years ago – that’s why a number of mysteries are  unresolved. For example why hunter-gatherers first began farming, and how were  crops domesticated to depend on people.“One controversy in this area is about  the extent to which ancient peoples knew they were domesticating crops. Did they  know they were breeding domestication characteristics into crops, or did these  characteristics just evolve as the first farmers sowed wild plants into  cultivated soil, and tended and harvested them?”The new research, published in  the journal Evolution Letters, shows the impact of domestication on vegetable  seed size.Any selective breeding of vegetables by early farmers would have acted  on the leaves, stems or roots that were eaten as food, but should not have  directly affected seed size.Instead, any changes in vegetable seed size must  have arisen from natural selection acting on these crops in cultivated fields,  or from genetic links to changes in another characteristic like plant or organ  size. In the last instance, people might have bred crops to become bigger, and  larger seeds would have come along unintentionally.The University of Sheffield  researchers gathered seed size data from a range of crops and found strong  evidence for a general enlargement of seeds due to domestication.

  They discovered domesticated maize seeds are 15 times bigger than the wild  form, soybean seeds are seven times bigger. Wheat, barley and other grain crops  had more modest increases in size (60 per cent for barley and 15 per cent for  emmer wheat) but these changes are important if they translate into yield.“We  found strong evidence for a general enlargement of seeds due to domestication  across seven vegetable species,” said Professor Osborne.“This is especially  stunning in a crop like a sweet potato, where people don’t even plant seeds, let  alone harvest them. The size of this domestication effect falls completely  within the range seen in cereals and pulse grains like lentils and beans,  raising the possibility that at least part of the seed enlargement in these  crops also evolved during domestication without deliberate foresight from early  farmers.”Professor Osborne added: “Our findings have important implications for  understanding how crops evolved, because they mean that major changes in our  staple crops could have arisen without deliberate foresight by early  farmers.“This means that unconscious selection was probably more important in  the genesis of our food plants than previously realised. Early increases in the  yields of crops might well have evolved in farmers' fields rather than being  bred artificially.”



  与其野生亲属相比,驯养作物几乎不被承认 - 这是在石器时代早期阶段发生的变化。对于粮食作物如谷物,驯化的标志是丧失自然种子分散 -  种子不再脱落植物,而是依赖人类或机器传播它们。谢菲尔德大学格兰瑟姆可持续未来中心的科林·奥斯本(Colin  Osborne)教授说:“我们对农业如何开始非常了解,因为它发生在一万年前,这就是为什么一些奥秘未解决。例如为什么狩猎采集者首先开始种植,而作物如何驯化依赖于人们。“这个领域的一个争议就是古代人民知道他们在种植作物的程度。他们是否知道他们正在种植作物的驯化特征,或者这些特征是否随着第一批农民将野生植物播种到栽培土壤中而发展,并倾向并收获?在“进化论”杂志上发表的新研究显示了驯化对蔬菜种子大小的影响。早期农民对蔬菜的任何选择性育种都会对作为食物的叶子,茎或根进行作用,但不应该直接影响种子的大小。相反,蔬菜种子大小的任何变化都必须来自于在耕地上作物对这些作物的自然选择,或者是与植物或器官大小等其他特征变化的遗传连接。最后一点,人们可能会把作物变得越来越大,种子越大,就越有意思。谢菲尔德大学的研究人员收集了一系列作物的种子数据,并发现有力的证据表明归因于种子的普遍扩大。他们发现家养玉米种子比野生型大15倍,大豆种子大7倍。小麦,大麦和其他粮食作物的规模增长较为适度(大麦为60%,麦子小麦为15%),但如果转化成产量,这些变化很重要。奥斯本教授说:“我们发现通过种植七种植物种子,普遍扩大种子的有力证据。“这在一个像甘薯这样的农作物尤其令人惊叹,人们甚至没有种植种子,更不用说收获它们了。这种驯化效应的大小完全落在像扁豆和豆类这样的谷物和脉冲谷物的范围内,提高了在驯化过程中至少部分种子扩大的可能性,而不是早期农民的预见。“奥斯本教授补充说:“我们的研究结果对于了解作物如何演变具有重要意义,因为它们意味着我们主要作物的重大变化可能没有早期农民的有意见的前景而出现。“这意味着无意识的选择在我们的食物植物的成因中可能比以前认识到的更重要。农作物产量的早期增加可能在农民领域不断演变,而不是人为地繁殖。“


  Research centres, institutes and networks

  Our research institutes and centres have been created to address global  challenges facing society, today and in the future. They are often  interdisciplinary, with external collaboration and funding, and have earned  international recognition.

  Cross-cutting research centres

· Advanced  Manufacturing Research Centre (AMRC)

· Advanced  Resource Efficiency Centre (AREC)

· Bateson  Centre

· Centre  for Assistive Technology and Connected Healthcare (CATCH)

· Centre  for Wellbeing in Public Policy (CWiPP)

· Digital  Humanities Institute (DHI)

· Energy  2050

· The  Florey Institute

· Food  Futures (The University of Sheffield Sustainable Food Futures)

· Grantham  Centre for Sustainable Futures

· iHuman

· Imagine:  Imaging Life

· Institute  for in silico Medicine (Insigneo)

· Medical  Humanities Sheffield (MHS)

· P3  - Plant Production and Protection

· Polymer  Centre

· Sheffield  Institute for International Development (SIID)

· Sheffield  Institute for Nucleic Acids (SInFoNiA)

· Sheffield  Institute for Translational Neuroscience (SITraN)

· Sheffield  Neuroscience

· Sheffield  Political Economy Research Institute (SPERI)

· Sheffield  Robotics

· Sheffield  Water Centre

· Urban  Institute




· 先进制造研究中心(AMRC

· 高级资源效率中心(AREC

· 巴特森中心

· 辅助技术和关联医疗中心(CATCH

· 公共卫生福利中心(CWiPP

· 数字人文学院(DHI

· 能量2050

· 弗洛里学院

· 食品期货(谢菲尔德大学可持续粮食未来)

· 格兰瑟姆可持续未来中心

· iHuman

· 想像:成像生活

· 计算机医学研究所(Insigneo

· 医学人文谢菲尔德(MHS

· P3  - 植物生产和保护

· 聚合物中心

· 谢菲尔德国际发展研究所(SIID

· 谢菲尔德核酸研究所(SInFoNiA

· 谢菲尔德翻译神经科学研究所(SITraN

· 谢菲尔德神经科学

· 谢菲尔德政治经济研究所(SPERI

· 谢菲尔德机器人

· 谢菲尔德水中心

· 城市研究所
















首席专家全程解惑 办签证 挑学校



英国本科 英国研究生



英国高中 英国本科



英国本科 英国研究生