字典2017-09-13 英国留学英国圣安德鲁斯大学英国留学




  About St Andrews

  Scotland's first university,Founded in the early 15th century, St Andrews is Scotland’s first university and the third oldest in the English speaking world.Teaching began in the community of St Andrews in 1410 and the University was formally constituted by the issue of a papal bull in 1413.Graduates,St Andrews has approximately 50,000 living graduates.Among them former Scottish First Minister Alex Salmond and the novelist Fay Weldon.Honorary graduates,Hillary Clinton,Former United States Secretary of StateSir Tim Berners-Lee.Computer scientist,In the last 90 years, the University has conferred around 1000 honorary degrees.Notable recipients include Benjamin Franklin, Rudyard Kipling, Alexander Fleming, Iris Murdoch, James Black, Elizabeth Blackadder, Tim Berners-Lee, and Hillary Clinton.The most international of Scotland’s universities,We are the most international of Scotland’s universities and one of the most international in the UK with staff and students of over 120 nationalities.Traditions,the University of St Andrews is home to many unique traditions.St Andrews is a unique and captivating place, and the University is a key part of its charm. Seven centuries of history link the students with the town, leading to the ancient and yet modern institution apparent today. For those interested in visiting or moving to St Andrews, we recommend taking a look at the town information, which describes the facilities and opportunities open to the local community. You can also find information about the University’s governance, history, and strategy for the future in the sections below.The University is governed by a number of key officials and three main bodies: University Court, the Academic Senate, and the General Council. Find out more about these groups and the other units and departments in the University below.The University of St Andrews embraces sustainable development across all of its operations, fully integrating it into all that we do. We have a mission to be recognised locally and internationally as a world-class institution that leads by example, actively implementing imaginative solutions and initiatives that achieve the aims of a more sustainable society.Our vision,our three-part strategy to become carbon neutral for energy production:Behaviour change: encouraging reduction in energy consumption such as the inter-hall energy competition in halls of residence which last year achieved savings of 48 tonnes of CO2.Energy efficiency and investment: ensuring highest energy efficiency in the built environment.Micro and macro renewable energy: investing in solar thermal heating on our residential and science buildings, solar photovoltaics (PV) electrical generation and ground source heat pumps on site. Our macro renewables plan will lead to a carbon reduction of 27,000 tonnes per annum through development of the Guardbridge Energy Centre and Kenly wind farm.

  圣安德鲁斯大学是苏格兰第一所大学成立于15世纪初,圣安德鲁斯是苏格兰第一所大学,再说英语国家中排名第三。1410年,圣安德鲁斯社区开始教学,1413年大教堂的英皇宣布圣安德鲁斯大学正式组建。圣安德鲁斯大学荣誉毕业生:美国前国务卿希拉里·克林顿、计算机科学家 Tim Berners-Lee爵士。在过去的90年中,大学授予了1000多个荣誉学位。著名获得学位的人包括本杰明·富兰克林,Rudyard Kipling,Alexander Fleming,Iris Murdoch,James Black,Elizabeth Blackadder,Tim Berners-Lee和Hillary Clinton。圣安德鲁斯大学事苏格兰最大的国际大学,也是英国最具国际性的国际学府之一,拥有120多个国家的员工和学生。传统,圣安德鲁斯大学拥有许多独特的传统。圣安德鲁斯是一个独特而迷人的地方,大学是其魅力的关键部分。七个世纪的历史将学生与城镇联系起来,导致了古代而又现代化的制度。对于有兴趣参观或前往圣安德鲁斯旅游的人士,我们建议您查看城市信息,介绍当地社区开放的设施和机会。您还可以在下面的部分中找到有关大学治理,历史和未来战略的信息。大学由多名主要官员和三个主要机构负责:大学法院,学术参议院和总理事会。了解更多关于这些团体以及下面大学的其他单位和部门。圣安德鲁斯大学拥护其所有业务的可持续发展,将其完全融入我们所做的一切。我们的使命是在当地和国际上得到公认的世界一流机构,以身作则,积极实施想象力的解决方案和实现更加可持续发展社会目标的举措。我们的愿景:我们为能源生产实现碳中和一共分为三部分的战略,行为改变:鼓励节能降耗,如在去年实现了48吨二氧化碳的储蓄的学生宿舍的大厅之间的能源竞争。能源效率和投资:确保建筑环境中的最高能源效率。微型和宏观可再生能源:在我们的住宅和科学建筑,太阳能光伏(PV)发电和地源热泵现场投资太阳能热采暖。我们的宏观可再生能源计划将通过开发Guardbridge能源中心和肯尼风电场,每年减少27,000吨碳 。


  1144 - 1153. St Andrews becomes a Royal Burgh:The town of St Andrews was raised to burgh status by Bishop Robert, a privilege confirmed by royal charter of King David I sometime between 1144-1153. The oldest surviving charter from the St Andrews burgh records dates from the time of King Malcolm IV (1153-1165). In it the King confirms to the burgesses of the Bishop of St Andrews ‘the whole liberties and customary rights which the general body of burgesses enjoy throughout the whole land at whatsoever ports they shall have touched.’ In 1614 St Andrews was made a Burgh of Regality and in 1620 James VI confirmed it as a Royal Burgh. The Lammas Fair, still held each August in St Andrews, is a reminder of one of the five fairs held in the town each year in the mediaeval period, although it is no longer a hiring fair or a focus of religious observance, rather a town centre fun fair.

  1161. Construction of St Andrews Cathedral is begun:There have been a number of churches and church buildings on the present Cathedral site. During the 1070s St Rule’s Church was begun and it was enlarged at least three times, the final rebuilding taking place under Prior William de Lothian (1340-54). St Rule’s tower still survives. In 1144, the Augustine priory was founded by Bishop Robert but the foundation of the Cathedral dates from the time of his successor, Bishop Arnold, around 1161 and building work continued for many generations. It was used from 1230 as a Priory church and Cathedral, being finally consecrated in the presence of King Robert I (‘the Bruce’) on 5 July 1318. It was the largest building in Scotland and was the second longest church in Britain. The west gable blew down in the 1270s, there was a fire in 1378 which necessitated repairs to choir and transept, and the south transept fell in a storm in 1409. In June 1559 the continuous daily worship of the Cathedral came to an end during the Reformation. The Cathedral buildings became a source for building materials until the mid-eighteenth century. The picture is taken from Martine’s Reliquiae divi Andreae, printed in St Andrews in 1797. The ruins have been preserved since the mid-nineteenth century and remain in the care of Historic Scotland.

  1410 - 1413. Foundation of the University:In May 1410 a group of masters, mainly graduates of Paris, initiated a school of higher studies in St Andrews, the seat of the greatest bishopric in Scotland and location of a monastery noted as a centre for learning. By February 1412 the society had established itself sufficiently to obtain a charter of incorporation and privileges from the Bishop, Henry Wardlaw. This granted the masters and students recognition as a properly constituted corporation, duly privileged and safeguarded for the pursuit of learning. However, recognised university status and the authority to grant degrees could only be conferred by the Pope or the Emperor as heads of Christendom.At time there was a schism in the Church and two rival papacies. Scotland believed that the Avignon Pope, now exiled in Peñiscola, was the lawful Pope. Accordingly, confirmation was sought from Pope Benedict XIII and in August 1413 a series of Papal Bulls were issued. With their promulgation in St Andrews Priory on 4 February 1414, the University of St Andrews may be said to have come fully and formally into existence. The six bulls included the bull of foundation and a bull confirming Wardlaw’s charter of 1412. Although the text of all six is known, only the confirmation of Wardlaw’s grant survives in the original and still bears its bulla or lead seal.

  1418 - 1419. Mace of the Faculty of Arts:The University of St Andrews possesses three medieval maces, all dating from the 15th century. These represent the authority of the University. They are thought to have been present at ceremonies such as graduation since their creation, and as such, provide a connection to the experiences of past generations of students and staff, many of whom will have stood before the maces.The Mace of the Faculty of Arts is the University’s oldest mace. It was commissioned in January 1416, not long after the University's foundation, and probably completed in 1418. Probably made in France, it is finely crafted in silver, partially gilded. The mace has a three-tiered hexagonal head. The top section takes the form of a lantern with traceried windows. Below this are the figures of St Michael, St Margaret of Antioch, St John the Baptist, the Virgin and Child, St Andrew, and St Leonard or St Ninian. On the lower stage are angels bearing the coats of arms of important figures in the University’s early history: the King of Scots, Bishop Wardlaw, the Earl of Mar, the Earl of Douglas and the Duke of Albany, plus a later addition, the arms of Archbishop Spottiswoode (University Chancellor 1615-39).

  1525. Graduation of George Buchanan:The historian, scholar, poet and humanist George Buchanan (1506-1582) was student and regent in St Leonard’s College and its Principal from 1566-70. He was educated in Paris and at the University of St Andrews. During an eventful early career, he served at the siege of Werk, was employed as tutor to a natural son of James V, and taught in Paris, Bordeaux, Coimbra and other locations on the Continent. By 1562, Buchanan had returned to Scotland, where he instructed Mary, Queen of Scots. He embraced the doctrines of the reformed church and declared himself a Protestant. He was a lay member of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland from 1563-1568 and Moderator in 1567. From October 1568 to January 1569 he was in England as one of Regent Moray's commissioners. In 1571 he published Detectio Mariae Reginae, a virulent attack on Mary, Queen of Scots. From 1570-1578 he was tutor to James VI and Keeper of the Privy Seal. In September 1580, Arnold von Brounckhorst was paid £8 by James VI for a portrait of Buchanan. Over the centuries, the portrait was lost and this one may be an early copy of the missing work. However, recent tests and research have raised the possibility that it is the original work itself. It is held within the Museum Collections of the University of St Andrews.

  1715 - 1745. The Jacobite risings:The uprising in 1715 in support of the claim of the Old Pretender against the Hanoverian regime had support amongst some members of the University. Alexander Robertson of Struan ‘most persistent of all Jacobites’ (Cant) had been a student. Another former student, the Chancellor’s son Tullibardine, was out in the ’15 and raised the standard of Bonnie Prince Charlie at Glenfinnan in 1745. Young Simon Fraser of Lovat left his studies to lead his clan in support of the Stewarts. St Leonard’s College in particular saw Jacobite protests in 1718-19 which brought a Parliamentary commission to visit the University. Once the rebels were defeated at Culloden and scattered, captured and their estates forfeited, the University made clear where its loyalties lay. It chose the Duke of Cumberland as its Chancellor in 1746. In an effort to prevent any recurrence of such Jacobite activity as had been seen in 1689, 1708, 1715, and 1719 ‘Butcher Cumberland’, who had commanded the loyalist army, had authorised the atrocities committed against the Highlanders in the aftermath of the battle of Culloden.

  1811. Teaching of science in the University:This item of chemical glassware was among several pieces found in the tower of St Salvator's chapel at the University of St Andrews in the 1920s. It dates from the late eighteenth or early nineteenth century and is on display in the Museum of the University of St Andrews (MUSA). It is thought that the glassware was once used in the teaching of Chemistry, which formed part of the curriculum for the degree of Master of Arts. The University's archives contain a receipt dated 7 October 1811 for the purchase, from Dr Thomson of Edinburgh, of scientific equipment including glassware. Although funds were provided in 1811, the first Professor of Chemistry was not appointed until 1840. The Chemistry Collection includes instruments acquired for teaching from the nineteenth century onwards as well as important products of research and is now recognised to be of historical significance. The library also houses the Alchemical Collection of books and manuscripts, largely gathered by Professor John Read who was a renowned scholar of the history of science.

  1925. Fridtjof Nansen, Norwegian explorer, as Rector:In 1893, the zoologist Fridtjof Nansen set out to prove his theory that ice drifted westwards from the North Siberian coast across the North Polar Seas by embedding his vessel, the Fram, into ice at latitude 78° 50' N. It moved with the ice and eventually emerged into open sea north of Spitsbergen thirty-five months later. Nansen and Lieutenant Johansen left the ship in March 1895 to make a dash for the North Pole, in the 'Farthest North' expedition. They did not reach the Pole itself, but came closer to it than anyone else had at this time. Nansen played an active part in securing the political independence of Norway from Sweden, and became the first Norwegian minister to Great Britain (1906-08). After World War I, he devoted his energies first to the repatriation of prisoners of war and then to the relief of Russian famine sufferers and Armenian refugees. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize, 1921-22. He continued his scientific work throughout his life. This self-portrait was presented by Fridtjof Nansen to the students of St Andrews University, whom he served as Rector from 1925 to 1928. It is on display in the Museum of the University of St Andrews (MUSA).

  2008 - 2009. Scotland’s first university:St Andrews is proud to call itself ‘Scotland’s first university’. It was the first to be founded, in the early years of the 15th century, and over six centuries it has established a reputation as one of Europe's leading and most distinctive centres for teaching and research. St Andrews finished fifth in the Sunday Times University Guide league table for 2008-09, achieving the highest-ever ranking for a Scottish institution and becoming at the same time the highest-placed multi-faculty university behind Oxbridge. In so doing, it secured the award of Sunday Times Scottish University of the Year for the second time in three years. Principal Brian Lang said, in the Undergraduate Prospectus for 2009 entry: ‘St Andrews is one of the most popular universities in the UK and is in the top five for research, teaching and the ‘Student Experience’. St Andrews maintains all the best traditions of the ancient Scottish universities. We firmly believe in a broadly based education and offer a wide choice of academic programmes. Our students and staff work hard but we take great care of everyone. Our Student Support Service is second to none, and is one of the elements that gives St Andrews its very high completion rate’ In the National Student Survey which measures student satisfaction with teaching and resources at their university. St Andrews students rated themselves as the top mainstream university in the UK (second only to the Open University). In May 2007 St Andrews was named fourth best university in the UK and the 'big success story' of that year's Guardian University Guide.

  1144年 - 1153年:圣安德鲁斯成为皇家伯格:罗伯特主教,圣安德鲁斯镇被提升到了霸主地位,这个特权是由David David王后授予的特权,有时在1144-1153之间。圣安德鲁斯繁荣记录中最古老的幸存宪章可追溯到马尔科姆四世(1153-1165)之时。在那里,国王证实了圣安德鲁斯主教的勃艮'the they they touched touched ever ever ever what what throughout throughout throughout throughout throughout throughout throughout throughout throughout''''''''whole'''''' 在1614年,圣安德鲁斯被改成了一个王室,1620年,詹姆斯六世将其确认为皇家伯格。今年八月份在圣安德鲁斯举行的民族博览会,每年八月在圣安德鲁斯举行,是提醒每年在中东地区举行的五场展会之一,尽管不再是招聘会或宗教仪式的重点,而是一个城镇的乐趣中心。

  1161年:,在现在的大教堂遗址有许多教堂和教堂建筑物的情况下,圣安德鲁斯大教堂的开始建设了。在十世纪七十年代,圣规则教堂已经开始建设,至少扩大了三次,最后的重建是在威廉·洛斯安先生(1340-54)之前进行的。圣规则塔仍然存在。在1144年,奥古斯丁小修道院由罗伯特主教创立,但大教堂的基础可追溯到他的继任者阿诺德主教时期,大约1161年,建设工作继续多代。它被用于1230年作为修道院教堂和大教堂,终于在1318年7月5日在罗伯特·国王(“布鲁斯”)面前被奉献。这是苏格兰最大的建筑,是英国第二长的教堂。西山墙于二十世纪七十年代爆发,1378年发生火灾,需要修缮合唱团,而南渡道在1409年遭受暴风雨的袭击。1559年6月,改革期间,大教堂的日常崇拜日益停止。大教堂建筑物直到十八世纪中期才成为建筑材料的来源。照片来自马丁的Reliquiae divi Andreae,于1797年在圣安德鲁斯印刷。废墟自十九世纪中叶以来一直保存下来,并保留在苏格兰历史悠久的历史中。


  1410年 - 1413年:大学基础建设时期,1410年5月,一批主要的巴黎大学毕业生,在圣安德鲁斯发起了一所高等院校,这是苏格兰最伟大的主教校区,也是一个被认为是学习中心的修道院的地点。到1412年2月,社会已经充分确立了主教亨利·沃德夫(Henry Wardlaw)的宪章和特权。这使得学生为追求学习而获得特权和保障被认可,然而,认可的大学地位和授予学位的权力只能由教皇或皇帝担任基督教首脑。当时有教会分裂和两个对手的文字。苏格兰认为,现在流亡于佩尼斯科拉的阿维尼翁教皇是合法的教皇。因此,教皇本笃十六世求证,1413年8月发行了一系列的教皇教皇的诏书。1414年2月4日在圣安德鲁派修道院公布,圣安德鲁斯大学可能被认为已经完全正式生效。六个教皇的诏书包括基数教皇的诏书和教皇的诏书,确定了1412年的“特洛伊”章程。尽管所有六人的案文都是已知的,但是只有对Wardlaw的补助金的确认才能在原有的基础上生存下来,并且仍然承担其大法宝或铅封。

  1418年 - 1419年:艺术学院的权杖,圣安德鲁斯大学拥有三座中世纪的道路,均可追溯到15世纪。这些代表了大学的权威。他们被认为是自诞生以来毕业的仪式,因此与过去几代学生和工作人员的经验联系起来,其中许多人将会站在前面。艺术学院的魔术师是大学最古老的魔术师。它是在1416年1月委托,不久之后大学的基础,可能在1418年完成。可能在法国制造,它是又精美的银部分镀金,锤头有一个三角六角头,顶部采用带有示踪窗的灯笼形式。下面是圣迈克尔,安提阿圣玛格丽特,施洗约翰圣母圣母圣圣安德烈和圣伦纳德或圣尼尼亚的数字。在制造的最初阶段,天主大学早期历史上重要人物的大衣,苏格兰王国、沃德夫主教、马尔伯爵、道格拉斯伯爵和奥尔巴尼公爵,加上后来的大主教斯波蒂斯伍德(大学校长1615-39)。

  1525年:乔治·布坎南毕业,他是著名的历史学家、学者、诗人和人文主义者是圣·莱昂纳德学院的学生和摄政者,是1566 - 70年代的校长。他在巴黎和圣安德鲁斯大学接受教育。在事业早期的职业生涯中,他曾受过Werk的围困,被聘为詹姆斯·V的自然之子的导师,并在巴黎、波尔多、科英布拉等大陆地区任教。到1562年,布坎南已经返回苏格兰,在那里他指示了苏格兰皇后的玛丽。他接受了改革教会的教义,宣称自己是新教徒。他是1563-1568年苏格兰教会大会的成员,1567年的主持人。从1568年10月至1569年,他在英国担任摄政大帝的专员。在1571年,他发表了Detectio Mariae Reginae,对玛丽的一场强烈的袭击,苏格兰王后。从1570年至1578年,他是导师给詹姆斯六世和密执安守护人。1580年9月,阿诺德·冯·布鲁诺克斯特(James Arnold von Brounckhorst)由詹姆斯六世(Buchanan)支付了8英镑。几个世纪以来,这幅肖像被遗忘了,而且这幅画可能是缺少作品的早期版本。然而,最近的测试和研究已经提出了它是原始工作本身的可能性。它在圣安德鲁斯大学博物馆收藏馆举行。

  1715年:雅各布的起义,1715年的起义支持老叛国人反对汉诺威政权的索赔得到了大学的一些成员的支持。所有Jacobites(Cant)中最持久的Struan的Alexander Robertson曾是一名学生。另一名前学生,大臣的儿子Tullibardine,于1745年出生,并于1745年在Glenfinnan提高了Bonnie Prince Charlie的标准.Lovat的年轻Simon Fraser离开学业领导他的氏族支持斯图尔特。圣莱昂纳德学院特别是在1718-19年看到了Jacobite的抗议活动,带来了议会委员会访问大学。一旦叛乱分子在库洛登被击败、分散、被捕和他们的遗产被没收,大学明确表示其忠诚于何处。在1746年,它选择了坎伯兰公爵作为总理。为了防止,像1689年,1708年,1715年和1719年所看到的那样的Jacobite活动的再次发生,“屠夫坎伯兰”(Batcher Cumberland)指挥了忠诚的军队,他们授权在战斗之后对高地人犯下的暴行的Culloden。  1811年:大学教学,这件化学玻璃器皿是在20世纪20年代圣安德鲁斯大学圣Salvator教堂的塔楼发现的。它可追溯到十八世纪末十九世纪初,并在圣安德鲁斯大学博物馆(MUSA)上展出。据认为,玻璃器皿曾被用于化学教学,这成为艺术硕士学位课程的一部分。大学的档案包含1811年10月7日从爱丁堡汤姆森博士购买的收据,包括玻璃器皿等科学设备。虽然资金是在1811年提供的,但第一位化学教授直到1840年才被任命。化学收藏包括十九世纪以前从事教学和重要研究产品的仪器,现在被认为具有历史意义。图书馆还藏有书籍和手稿的化学收藏品,主要由John Read教授收购,他是著名的科学史学者。


  1893年:动物学家Fridtjof Nansen开始证明他的理论,冰由北西伯利亚海岸向西偏移穿过北极海域,嵌入他的船只,Fram,在纬度78°50'N的冰中。冰块移动,最终在三十五个月后出现在Spitsbergen以北的开阔海域。南森和约翰森中尉于1895年3月离开这艘船,在北极“最远的”考察中为北极做了一个冲刺。他们没有达到波兰本身,但比目前比其他任何人都更接近。南森积极参与确保挪威在瑞典的政治独立,并成为英国第一位挪威部长(1906-08)。第一次世界大战以后,他首先把精力放在了遣返战俘身上,然后救了俄罗斯饥荒患者和亚美尼亚难民。他被授予1921年至22年的诺贝尔和平奖。他在一生中继续他的科学工作。

  2008年 - 2009年:苏格兰第一所大学圣安德鲁斯大学自豪地称自己为“苏格兰第一所大学”。这是第一个在15世纪初成立的大学,六百多年来,它已成为欧洲领先和最具特色的教学与研究中心之一。圣安德鲁斯在2008-09赛季的“星期日泰晤士报大学指南”联赛中排名第五,实现了苏格兰机构排名第一,同时成为牛津大学背后最高的多学院大学。在这样做的时候,它在三年内第二次获得了星期日泰晤士报苏格兰大学奖。Brian Lang校长说,2009年本科招生说明书:“圣安德鲁斯大学是英国最受欢迎的大学之一,在研究,教学和”学生体验“排名前五。圣安德鲁斯维护古老苏格兰大学的所有最好的传统。我们坚信广泛的教育,并提供广泛的学术课程选择。我们的学生和员工努力工作,但我们非常关心每个人。我们的学生支持服务是首屈一指的,是圣安德鲁斯的完成率非常高的元素之一。在国民学生调查中,衡量学生对大学教学和资源的满意度。圣安德鲁斯学生将自己评为英国顶尖的主流大学(仅次于开放大学)。2007年5月,圣安德鲁斯被评为英国第四佳大学,是当年“大成功案例” 我们坚信广泛的教育,并提供广泛的学术课程选择。我们的学生和员工努力工作,但我们非常关心每个人。我们的学生支持服务是首屈一指的,是圣安德鲁斯的完成率非常高的元素之一。在国民学生调查中,衡量学生对大学教学和资源的满意度。圣安德鲁斯学生将自己评为英国顶尖的主流大学(仅次于开放大学)。在国民学生调查中,衡量学生对大学教学和资源的满意度。圣安德鲁斯学生将自己评为英国顶尖的主流大学(仅次于开放大学)。2007年5月,圣安德鲁斯被评为英国第四佳大学,是当年“大成功案例”卫报大学指南。








英国传媒专业一直受到不少学生的青睐,那么英国传媒专业的硕士 预科排名是如何呢?有哪些好的大学排在前面呢?和出国留学网一起来看看吧!下面是小编整理的英国大学传媒专业硕士预科排名情况相关资讯,欢迎阅读。








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