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德国弗赖堡大学基本概况

字典2017-09-26 德国留学德国大学德国弗赖堡大学

  德国弗赖堡大学创办于1457年,位于弗赖堡市中心,目前在QS世界排名第171位。下面是出国留学网整理并翻译的弗赖堡大学基本概况,希望能增加同学们对这所学校的了解。

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  一、关于弗赖堡大学

  Not only is Albert-Ludwig University physically located in the heart of the city of Freiburg - its students, professors, and staff are also an integral part of daily life in the Capital of the Black Forest. This is also one of the reasons why Freiburg has become such a popular place to study. Aside from the numerous leisure activities which may be enjoyed in and near the city and its proximity to the Alsace and Switzerland, it is above all the variety of academic progams which attracts so many students to Freiburg. The university boasts a variety of degree programs in any of more than 60 fields in 11 faculties. Upon its foundation in 1457, the university already offered courses of study at the Faculties of Theology, Law, Medicine, and Humanities. Matthäus Hummel, the first rector of the university, chose the leitmotif, wisdom has built itself a house, for his inaugural address. Archduke Albrecht VI of Western Austria, on the other hand, had the education of young law and theology students for governmental posts and the church in mind when founding the university.

  弗赖堡大学位于弗赖堡市中心,其学生、教师和员工也是这座有“黑森林之都”之称的城市日常生活的一部分。这可以解释为什么学生们那么喜欢来弗赖堡大学学习。吸引学生来弗赖堡大学学习的,不仅是因为其大量的分布于弗赖堡市及附近的文娱活动以及其毗邻法国阿尔萨斯和瑞士的地理关系,而且主要是因为弗赖堡大学提供的各种专业课程。弗赖堡大学有引以为豪的学位课程。这些课程涵盖60多个领域,分布在11个院系。自1457年成立以来,弗赖堡大学已经有了涵盖神学、法学、医学和人文学科的课程。弗赖堡大学的第一任校长 Matthäus Hummel在就职演说中选择了“智慧建造自己的居所”作为主题。而奥地利大公阿尔布莱希特六世在建校之初已有了为政府公职和教会培养年轻法律和神学人才的教育理念。

  Faculty staff and students (by QS)

Number of academic faculty staffNumber of studentsNumber of international students
In total1966In total23214In total3897
International413Postgraduate43%Postgraduate51%


Undergraduate57%Undergraduate49%

  师生人数(QS数据)

专业教员人数学生人数国际学生人数
总共1966总共23214总共3897
国际教员413研究生占比43%研究生占比51%


本科生占比57%本科生占比49%

  二、弗赖堡大学的历史

  Beginnings (15th Century)

  In 1457 the Freiburg Cathedral was the site of the foundation of a university. The financier and figure after whom the institution was named was Archduke Albert VI, of whose dominion, Western Austria, Freiburg was then a part. The “Albertina” was founded as a comprehensive university, including all important faculties of the time: Theology, Law, Medicine, and Philosophy. Its purpose was to educate young theologians and administrators. Some of the first students lived in “Bursen” (hostels) on the site of what is now known as the “Old University,” where the first lectures also took place. Classes were held in Latin.

  15世纪:初期

  弗莱堡大学建校时尚属于奥地利,因而以其资助人奥地利大公阿尔布莱希特六世命名。时为奥地利哈布斯堡王朝继维也纳大学后的第二所大学。

  1457年,弗莱堡大教堂曾是某所大学的所在地。在大学成立之前的金融家和人物即大公阿尔布莱希特六世。当时,在大公阿尔布莱希特六世的统治下,弗赖堡还是奥地利西部的一部分。阿尔贝蒂娜大学即弗赖堡大学的前身,是一所综合大学,有那个时代所有重要的学院:神学院、法学院、医学院和哲学院。当时,学校的目的是培养年轻的神学家和管理员。在第一批学生中,有一部分学生是住在招待所,即现在所谓的“老大学”。最早的讲座也在这里展开。课程用拉丁语授课。

  Success (16th Century)

  A number of well-known humanists studied and taught at Freiburg’s university. They were dedicated to the ideals of education and tolerance and understood the invention of the printing press as a signal. One of them was Martin Waldseemüller, the first person ever to use the name “America” for the recently discovered continent in his world atlas. The Reformation was a topic of heated debate at the University of Freiburg, the authorities finally opting for Catholicism and loyalty to Austria. Aristocrats and bourgeois who sent their sons to the university to prepare for a diplomatic or military career ushered in new trends: French became popular, the university hired fencing and dancing teachers.

  16世纪:成功

  许多著名的人文主义这都曾在弗赖堡大学学习或上课过。他们致力于教育和宽容的理念,得到印刷机作为讯号的发明的重要性。在这些著名的人文主义者中,就有马丁·瓦尔德泽米勒。他是第一个在世纪地图集中使用“美洲”一词描述新大陆的人。宗教改革在当时的弗赖堡大学是一个热门话题,当局最终为天主教义和忠诚选择了奥地利。贵族和资本家在将他们的孩子送到大学接受外交或军事教育的同时,也引入了新的风尚:法语变得流行起来,弗赖堡大学甚至还聘用了击剑和舞蹈教师。

  Jesuit Influence (17th Century)

  The 17th century was marked by the rivalry between the confessions. In 1620 the Catholic rulers introduced the Jesuit Order at the faculties of theology and humanities. Although the order was regarded as modern and strong in education, its influence also led to severe restrictions in the curriculum. The Jesuits introduced theater to the University of Freiburg and strengthened the tradition of debating (How many angels fit on the tip of a needle?). The building known today as the “Old University” (after its destruction in World War II and its subsequent reconstruction) was originally built by the Jesuits over the course of several decades and served as their theological college.

  17世纪:耶稣会士的影响

  在17世纪留下烙印的是忏悔之间的竞争。1620年,天主教统治者们将耶稣会引入了神学院和人文学院。虽然耶稣会的引入在当时被视为教育现代化和强化的一个举措,是积极的,但是它也导致了对课程内容的严格限制。耶稣会将剧院引入弗赖堡大学,并强化了人辩论的传统。(他们甚至会真论针尖上可以有几个天使)。如今名为“老大学”的建筑最初即由耶稣会建立,并作为他们的神学院。建筑在二战中被毁,后来得到了修复。

  Reforms (18th Century)

  The enlightened government administration had an ever increasing need for civil servants with practical skills, and the upper classes demanded a professional education. In 1768 Maria Theresa thus introduced an extensive reform which curtailed the financial independence of educational institutions in the empire, including the University of Freiburg. The reform increased competition among students by adding more examinations, limited the length of semester breaks, introduced modern textbooks and practical instructional materials, and replaced the instructional form of reading verbatim from books with explanatory lectures – in German. In 1773 the Pope dissolved the Jesuit Order (temporarily) in response to threats from several countries, and their theological college on Bertholdstraße was given to the university.

  18世纪:改革

  开明的政府管理持续要求提供具备实践技能的公务员,而上流社会则要求接受专业教育。在这样的背景下,1768年,玛丽娅·特蕾莎推行了广泛的改革。改革剥夺了教育机构在帝国内经济独立的特权,弗赖堡大学的经济独立权也由此被剥夺。改革还增加了学生间的竞争,增加了考试,缩短了假期,引入了现代教材和实用教学材料,以解释性的讲座取代了逐字阅读的教学形式(在德国)。1773年,作为对来自好几个国家的威胁的回应,教皇临时解散了耶稣会。耶稣会在Bertholdstraße的神学院也因此让给了弗赖堡大学。

  Expansion (19th Century)

  As a result of the Napoleonic Wars, the Breisgau region fell to the Grand Duchy of Baden in 1805. At the same time, the University of Freiburg lost all of its possessions west of the Rhine, and with them a large portion of its income. Louis I, Grand Duke of Baden, arranged an endowment for the university in 1820, thus ensuring its continued existence. In thanks, the University changed its name to “Alberto-Ludoviciana” in honor of both of its founding fathers. Also in these years, the first student corporations were formed in a wave of enthusiasm for the nationalistic cause and democratic ideals inspired by the French Revolution. However, their hopes for a republic were soon dashed in the bloody revolution of 1848. Starting in 1850 enrollment began to grow, soon reaching 1500. The natural sciences campus was built to accommodate the increased enrollment.

  19世纪:扩展

  拿破仑战争导致布列斯高地区于1805年落入了 巴登大公国的统治。与此同时,弗赖堡大学丧失了其在莱茵河西岸的所有财产,也因此丧失了一大笔收入。巴登大公国的路易一世于1820年发起了筹款,弗赖堡大学因此才得以继续存在。作为感激,也是对其创始者的纪念,弗赖堡大学更名为Alberto-Ludoviciana大学。也正是在这段时间,法国大革命掀起的国家事业和民主理念浪潮让第一批学生企业得以形成。不过,他们的共和国理想没有实现,在1848年的血腥革命中被粉碎了。从1850年起,弗赖堡大学注册的人数开始增多,很快就超过了1千5百人。为了容纳增加的学生,学校建立了自然科学校区。

  Contrasts (20th Century)

  In 1900 the University of Freiburg began admitting women to studies – as the first university in Germany. In 1902 the new University Library was opened (in what is today university building IV), and in 1911 the new main university building (today university building I) was dedicated, providing space for the 3000 students now enrolled. The tower of the building still contains the “Karzer,” a detention room in which students who had misbehaved were locked up as punishment. This privilege was banned in 1920. In the same year, the new University Medical Center opened its doors on Hugstetter Straße.

  On the top floor of university building I there is still a monument for students and employees of the university who were among the victims of the two world wars. In the heart of the same building, in the main foyer, the university erected a memorial in 2005 to commemorate the almost 400 known employees and students of the University of Freiburg who suffered death, banishment, or severe discrimination under the National Socialist regime. However, many other victims remain unnamed: Over 1500 persons were assigned to forced labor at the medical center, where there is also evidence of criminal medical interventions. The university followed the orders of the National Socialists, at times even with conviction. Martin Heidegger’s appointment as rector of the university in 1933, for instance, was celebrated as a “takeover.” Heidegger did not comment on his role as rector of the university until his death in 1976.

  20世纪:反差

  1900年,弗赖堡大学开始招生女学生。这也是德国最先招收女学生的大学。1902年,新的大学图书馆开放(即今天的第四栋大学楼)。1911年,新的主大学楼即今天的第一栋大学楼开放,为3千名学生提供了学习空间。大学楼第一栋的顶楼现在仍然有“学生监狱”——行为不当的学生遭受惩罚都会被关在这里。这个特权在1920年被取消。同年,新的大学医学中心在Hugstetter Straße开放。

  在大学楼第一栋顶部仍然有一座纪念碑。它记录了在两次世界大战中遇害的学生和大学员工。在大学楼第一栋的中部主大厅,学校于2005年立了一座纪念碑,作为对在纳粹统治下遇害、被驱逐或遭受严重歧视的近4百名学生和大学员工的纪念。不过,许多受害人仍然没有对应的名字:在纳粹统治期间,1千5百多人被派往医疗中心做苦力。在那里,证据表明他们遭到了刑事医疗干预。即便在定罪期间,弗赖堡大学还是遵循了纳粹党的指令。海德格尔1933年被任命为弗赖堡大学校长,他的就任竟然被人们庆祝为“接管”。而海德格尔本人直到1976年逝世,才会他作为大学校长的角色稍有提及。


本文来源:http://www.liuxue86.com/a/3403309.html

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