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英国杜伦大学基本概况

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2017-09-08 15:28

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学校名称: 英国杜伦大学 Durham University

所在位置:英国

QS排名:78

USNEWS排名:172

学校中文网址:https://yingguo.liuxue86.com/school/36140/

  英国的杜伦大学创立于1072年,在英国乃至世界都称得上是顶尖的公立研究型大学,吸引着越来越多中国学生的目光跟着出国留学网一起来了解下英国杜伦大学基本概况吧,欢迎阅读。

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  一、关于杜伦大学

  Durham, I have come to realise, has a capacity to astound out of all proportion to its size. I don’t know any place that manages to be more intimate and infinite at once.”Bill Bryson, international author and former Chancellor of Durham UniversityDurham University is distinctive - a residential collegiate university with long traditions and modern values. We seek the highest distinction in research and scholarship and are committed to excellence in all aspects of education and transmission of knowledge. Our research and scholarship affect every continent.We are proud to be an international scholarly community which reflects the ambitions of cultures from around the world. We promote individual participation, providing a rounded education in which students, staff and alumni gain both the academic and the personal skills required to flourish.Durham is one of the world’s great universities and one of the most distinctive.Our future is bright. We attract wonderful students from all around the world and we are ready to embrace change.We built our new University Strategy over the course of 18 months. Vice-Chancellor Ray Hudson began the process and I was privileged to complete it, working with a dedicated team of academics and members of the professional services, as well as students.Our approach to Strategy building was distinctive in three main ways.First, we have not been content to state that we will build a stronger faculty, improve our estate, enhance our education offer or make our professional services more efficient. We agreed that we would always link an objective to an action.Second, the Strategy was developed with a view to engaging the Durham University community as fully as possible. Our governing bodies, Senate and Council, saw all the chapters as Green and White papers and the wider University community had access to an interactive Strategy website. Consultation outside the University has focused on our Estate Masterplan but nothing has been held back.Third, the development of the Strategy did not constrain the University from taking some major decisions during its period of gestation. To the contrary: the University community agreed during the course of 2016 to endorse a set of policy proposals that will fundamentally change the size, shape and mission of the University.

  The Strategy starts by declaring that Durham is so much more than a leading research-intensive university. We are a collegiate university, an historic university, a university that values the wider student experience as much as we value education and research.We then show how we will build on success to shape our future. We have identified some key areas for improvement. And we have proposed actions to put the University on a firm footing as we move forward. Some of these actions involve radical change, as you will see.Thereafter, the Strategy describes how we will build on our strengths to do so much more in research, education and the wider student experience. We believe strongly that the best is still to come.We will work hard to globalise Durham and to make it a more significant player in our region, the UK and beyond. And we will do so most of all by investing in our core asset: our people.The Strategy concludes with our Estate Masterplan and chapters on alumni relations, our future funding, our characteristics and values and how we will measure our performance.Along the way, you will meet some of our academics, professional service staff and students and see some of our buildings, new and old. You will also meet some of our members for life, our alumni.

  我已经意识到,杜伦大学,有能力与做到与其规模相抵的城府,我无法立即的想到任何地方可以像杜伦大学这么亲切。杜伦大学国际作家和前总理比尔·布莱森(Bill Bryson)认为杜伦大学是独特的,一个具有悠久传统和现代价值观的大学院校。我们寻求最高的研究和奖学金,并致力于教育和传播知识的各个方面的卓越。我们的研究和奖学金影响到每个大陆。我们自豪地成为一个反映了来自世界各地文化野心的国际学术社区。我们促进个人参与,提供圆满的教育,让学生、员工和校友获得蓬勃发展所需的学术和个人技杜伦大学是世界上最伟大的大学之一,也是最具特色的大学之一。我们的未来是光明的。我们吸引了来自世界各地的杰出学生,我们准备好接受变革。我们在18个月内建立了我们的新大学战略。雷德·哈德森副校长开始了这个过程,我很荣幸地完成了这一工作,与专门的学术团队和专业服务人员以及学生一起工作。

  我们的战略建设方法有三个主要方面。首先,我们表示我们将建立更强大的、改善我们的房地产、更有效率的提升我们的教育水平或使我们的专业服务。我们同意我们永远将目标与行动联系起来。第二,我们制定了以下的“战略”,以尽可能地吸引杜伦大学社区。我们的理事机构,参议院和理事会都看到所有章节都是绿色和白色的文件,更广泛的大学社区可以访问互动的战略网站。大学以外的咨询重点是我们的房屋总体规划,但没有任何阻碍。第三,“战略”的制定并没有限制大学在妊娠期间作出重大决定。恰恰相反:大学社团在2016年期间同意认可一套政策建议,从根本上改变大学的规模,形态和使命。该策略始于宣布杜伦大学比领先的研究密集型大学更是如此。我们是一所历史悠久的大学,一所重视更广泛学生体验的大学,我们重视教育和研究。然后,我们将展示如何在成功的基础上塑造未来。我们已经确定了一些改进的关键领域。而且我们提出了在大学前进的时候把大学置于坚实的基础上。其中一些行动涉及激进的变革,正如你将看到的那样。此后,该策略描述了我们如何在研究,教育和更广泛的学生体验方面更加强化我们的优势。我们坚信最好的一定会到来。我们将努力使杜伦大学全球化,并使其成为我们地区,英国及其他地区更重要的一员。我们最重要的是通过投资我们的核心资产:我们的人民。策略”总结关于我们的房地产总体规划、关于校友关系、未来资金、特点和价值观以及我们如何衡量绩效的章节。整个在校学习的过程中您将会见到我们的一些学者、专业的服务人员、学生、并看到我们的一些建筑物。你也会遇到我们的一些成员,我们的校友。

  二、历史沿革

  After the Dark Ages in Europe, the 7th Century saw a flowering of thought and culture in the North East of England. Bede - poet, scientist, historian and the greatest European scholar of the 7th century - is buried in Durham, as is St Cuthbert, who established 'English' Christianity from its Celtic and Roman roots.The Lindisfarne Gospels, 'one of the great landmarks of human cultural achievement', were produced nearby and resided in Durham with the body of St Cuthbert until the 16th century when they were removed to London - our 'Gospel Book' is returning to Durham in 2013. The 'Cuthbert Community' became one of the richest in Europe, with lands extending from the Tyne to the Tees and beyond. This scholarly, monastic community was a precursor of the modern University tradition which spread across Europe and around the world.Durham's 11th century Norman Cathedral was built between 1096 and 1130 and is one of the world's truly great buildings. Durham Castle, now part of the University, dates from 1072 and was the seat of the all-powerful Prince-Bishops who wielded secular and religious power over much of the North of England, with their own armies, system of taxation and coinage - until the end of the Prince-Bishopric in 1832 Durham was effectively a state within a state.Durham became one of England's leading centres of medieval scholarship, along with Oxford and Cambridge. Indeed, three Colleges - now part of Oxford University - were founded from Durham (University College and Balliol College, and in 1286 Durham College was run from Durham to train scholars for Durham for 300 years until it became incorporated into the University of Oxford as Trinity College).

  Henry VIII and Oliver Cromwell's attempts to formally establish a University for the North in Durham were subsumed by politics and North-South rivalries, and it was not until 1832, as the Prince-Bishopric declined lost his powers, was Durham finally endowed with the Castle and lands and granted degree awarding powers by the king as England's third University. Durham University is the inheritor of a continuous line of learning and scholarship dating from Bede and Cuthbert to the present day.Durham has always been a modern, forward-looking University. With a medieval World Heritage Site at our heart, our new buildings continue the tradition of important and innovative architecture.Durham was one of the first universities to admit women on an equal footing to men (1890), to establish medical training (1834) and the first to award Civil and Mining Engineering degrees to meet regional and national needs during the industrial revolution (1838).Durham led in the development of science and established one of the earliest observatories in England. Durham University was based in two cities for over 100 years, its medical school at King's College and other Colleges in Newcastle becoming the new and independent University of Newcastle in 1963.Durham was also the first University to establish overseas campuses a century before the concept was reinvented: in Barbados in 1875 and Sierra Leone in 1876. In 1992 the University established a significant presence at our Queen's Campus in the heart of Tees Valley, reinitiating medical teaching and breaking disciplinary boundaries to enhance public health and social well being.

  在欧洲黑暗时代之后,七世纪在英国东北部看到了思想和文化的开花结果。Bede - 诗人、科学家、历史学家以及七世纪最伟大的欧洲学者 - 被埋在杜伦大学,圣库斯伯特也从凯尔特人和罗马人的根源建立了“英国”基督教。Lindisfarne福音书是“人类文化成就的伟大地标之一”,附近生产在杜伦大学与圣库斯伯特身体直到16世纪,当他们被移交到伦敦时,我们的“福音书”正在回到杜伦大学“库斯伯特社区”成为欧洲最富有的地区之一,土地由泰恩河延伸至三通及以上。这个学术的修道院社区是现代大学传统的前身,传播到欧洲和全世界。杜伦大学的11世纪诺曼大教堂建于1096年至1130年间,是世界上真正伟大的建筑之一。杜伦大学城堡现在是大学的一部分,始于1072年,是全能王子主教的所在地,他们在英国北部的大部分地区拥有世俗和宗教权力,拥有自己的军队,税收和造币制度,直到1832年杜伦大学王储主教结束实际上是一个国家的状态。杜伦大学成为英国领先的中世纪奖学金中心之一,以及牛津和剑桥。事实上,现在是牛津大学的三所学院,由杜伦大学(大学学院和巴利奥尔学院)创立,1286年杜伦大学学院从杜伦大学开始,为杜伦大学学习300多年,直到纳入牛津大学为三位一体学院)。亨利八世和奥利弗·克伦威尔正式在杜伦大学北部建立大学的企图被纳入了政治和南北对抗,直到1832年,正如主教主教拒绝失去权力一样,杜伦大学终于获得了城堡并授予英国第三大学国王授予学位授予权。杜伦大学是从Bede和Cuthbert到今天继续学习和奖学金的继承人。

  创造未来,杜伦大学一直是一个现代化,前瞻性的大学。随着中世纪的到来,我们的新建筑继续保持着重要和创新的建筑的传统。杜伦大学是第一批接受男子平等接受治疗的大学之一(1890年),建立医学培训(1834年),并首次颁发民用和矿业工程学位以满足工业革命期间的区域和国家需求(1838年) 。杜伦大学领导科学发展,并建立了英国最早的观测台之一。杜伦大学位于两个城市100多年,其国王学院的医学院和纽卡斯尔的其他学院在1963年成为新的独立的纽卡斯尔大学。杜伦大学也是第一所建立海外校园的大学,在这个概念重新发明前一个世纪:在1875年的巴巴多斯和1876年的塞拉利昂。1992年,大学在Tees Valley中心的皇后大学建立了重要的地位,重新启动医学教学打破学科界限,加强公众健康和社会福祉。

  687 - St Cuthbert dies (now buried in Durham Cathedral).

  715-720 - Lindisfarne Gospels made.

  735 - Bede dies (later buried in Durham Cathedral).

  995 - St Cuthbert's Community builds the first Durham Cathedral.

  1072 - Building of Durham Castle begins (now the oldest university building in the world).

  1095-1130 - Durham Cathedral built.

  1286 - Durham Hall, later Durham College, founded in Oxford by and for Durham. In 1555, becomes Trinity College, Oxford.

  1541 - Henry VIII proposes founding a Northern university in Durham.

  1657 - Oliver Cromwell grants Letters Patent to give Durham degree awarding powers - blocked by Oxford and Cambridge universities.

  1669 - Bishop Cosin's Library endowed as a public lending library.

  1832 - Establishment of the University of Durham by Act of Parliament, gaining royal assent on 4 July.

  1832 - University College was founded.

  1834 - Durham Regatta founded, three years before Henley, making it the first and oldest regatta.

  1837 - Royal Charter granted to the University by King William IV on 1 June.

  1837 - Durham Castle handed over to the University.

  1838 - First university to offer civil and mining engineering degrees to meet national

  1875 and 1876 - The first overseas campuses, in Barbados and Sierra Leone.

  1888 - St Cuthbert's Society was founded the leading university boat club in the UK, and UK champions for the past seven years).

  1895 - Royal Charter granted to allow degrees to be given to women.

  1908 - George Kitchin, Warden since 1894, becomes the first Chancellor.

  1909 - Durham University divided into two Divisions, the Durham and Newcastle Divisions.

  1963 - Durham University's King's College becomes the independent University of Newcastle.

  1977 - Durham University wins University Challenge.

  1987 - Durham Cathedral and Castle become a World Heritage Site.

  1992 - NetPark - Durham's innovative science park - established at Sedgefield, Co. Durham.

  1992 - Sir Peter Ustinov is installed as the University's tenth Chancellor.

  1994 - University College, Stockton-on-Tees becomes a college of the University of Durham.

  2000 - Durham University wins University Challenge (for the second time).

  2001 - John Snow College and George Stephenson College were founded at the Stockton Campus.

  2002 - The Stockton Campus becomes Queen's Campus in recognition of Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II's Golden Jubilee and the tenth anniversary of the Campus.

  2005 - Bill Bryson becomes the University's 11th Chancellor.

  2005 - Durham University named Sunday Times University of the Year.

  2007 - Professor Chris Higgins becomes the 23rd Vice-Chancellor and Warden.

  2012 - Durham University joins the Russell Group.

  2012 - Sir Thomas Allen becomes the University's 12th Chancellor.

  687年:St Cuthbert去世(现今被埋在杜伦大学大教堂)。

  715 - 720年:迪斯福音。

  735年,Bede去世(后来被埋在杜伦大学大教堂)。

  995年,St Cuthbert的社区建立了第一个杜伦大学大教堂。

  1072年,杜伦大学城堡的建造开始(现在是世界上最古老的大学建筑)。

  1095 - 1130年,杜伦大学的大教堂。

  1286年的今天,杜伦大学的杜伦大学,由杜伦大学和杜伦大学共同创立。1555年,牛津大学三一学院。

  1541年,亨利八世提议在杜伦大学建立一所北方大学。

  1657年的今天,奥利弗克伦威尔授予了授予杜伦大学学位授予权的专利,被牛津大学和剑桥大学阻止。

  1669年,Bishop Cosin的图书馆被捐赠为公共图书馆。

  1832年,由国会法案建立的杜伦大学,在7月4日获得王室的批准。

  1832年,大学成立。

  1834年的今天,在Henley的三年前,他创立了第一个和最古老的赛船。

  1837年6月1日,威廉王子四世授予皇家特许学校。

  1837年的今天,杜伦大学堡向大学递交了一所大学。

  1838年的今天,第一所大学提供土木和采矿工程学位

  1875年和1876年-在巴巴多斯和塞拉利昂的第一个海外大学。

  1888年,圣卡斯伯特的社会建立了英国领先的大学船俱乐部,在过去的7年里一直是英国的冠军。

  1895年,皇家特许允许授予女性学位。

  1908年,George Kitchin,自1894年以来,成为了第一任总理。

  1909年,杜伦大学分成两部分,分别是杜伦大学和纽卡斯尔大学。

  1963年,杜伦大学国王学院成为纽卡斯尔大学独立学院。

  1977年,杜伦大学赢得了大学的挑战。

  1987年,杜伦大学大教堂和城堡成为世界遗产。

  1992年,德拉姆的创新科学园——在德勒姆的赛奇菲尔德成立。

  1992年,Peter Ustinov先生被任命为大学的第十任校长。

  1994年,大学学院,斯托克顿大学成为了杜伦大学的一所大学。

  2000年,杜伦大学赢得了大学的挑战(这是第二次)。

  2001年,约翰斯诺学院和乔治斯蒂芬森学院在斯托克顿校区成立。

  2002年,为了纪念女王伊丽莎白二世女王登基50周年和校园十周年,斯托克顿校园成为女王的校园。

  2005年,Bill Bryson成为了大学的第11任校长。

  2005年,杜伦大学命名为“星期日泰晤士大学”。

  2007年,Chris Higgins教授成为第23位副校长和学监

  2012年,杜伦大学加入了罗素集团。

  2012年,托马斯-艾伦爵士成为该大学的第12任校长。

  三、教研优势

  1.概述

  Deliver a critical mass of world-leading research across all academic departments;Produce and disseminate research that has a positive impact on global, national and regional challenges and which benefits culture, society, health, the economy and the physical environment;Offer a rewarding research environment and an exceptional research-led learning experience.Durham University Departments generally rank in the top tier of Russell Group universities and Archaeology, Geography and Theology and Religion are all ranked in the Top Ten of all Departments globally. Our Arts and Humanities Faculty is in the World Top 50.Durham University researchers work across disciplinary boundaries. The University has eight Research Institutes that lead the world in areas including energy; hazard, risk and resilience; particle physics; medieval and early modern studies; and computational cosmology. The Institute of Advanced Study brings external Fellow to Durham to work with our academics on changing research questions.Durham University researchers maintain key partnerships with Procter and Gamble, IBM, Dong Energy and the Centre for Process Innovation. Procter and Gamble has recognised the University as a “best in class” academic partner.Durham University researchers create new businesses and employment. The University has launched 25 spin out companies since 1997 – including Kromek, P2i and Ikon Science – supporting nearly 1,000 jobs.

  我们的目标是,我们会在所有学术部门进行大量世界领先的研究,制作和传播对全球,国家和地区挑战产生积极影响并有利于文化、社会、卫生、经济和物质环境的研究,提供有益的研究环境和卓越的研究主导的学习经验。我们已经做得很好,杜伦大学部门一般位于罗素集团大学的顶级考古学地理学和神学与宗教学院全部排在全球前十名。我们的艺术和人文学院在世界50强。杜伦大学的研究人员跨学科界限工作。大学有八个研究机构,在能源领域领先世界危害,风险和弹性。 粒子物理学,中世纪早期现代研究和计算宇宙学。该高级研究学院带来的外部研究员杜伦大学不断变化研究的问题与我们的学术工作。杜伦大学研究人员与宝洁、IBM、东能和过程创新中心保持了重要合作关系。宝洁公认该大学是“同类最佳”学术合作伙伴。杜伦大学的研究人员创造了新的业务和就业自1997年以来,该大学已经推出了25家纺织公司,包括Kromek,P2i和Ikon Science - 支持近1,000个工作岗位。

  2.最新研究展示

  Calling time on the kissing bugs

  They are known as ‘kissing bugs’ and they spread a disease that rarely makes the headlines but infects up to seven million people worldwide.Chagas disease is a tropical disease transmitted by insects which inflicts a huge burden in some of the poorest Latin American countries.Now a worldwide network of scientists, led by Durham University, will work together to find new drug targets for this neglected disease.They will also target leishmaniasis, a disease affecting the very poor in developing countries, transmitted by sandfly bites with over 700,000 new cases per year.Identifying new drug targets,The researchers will use new chemical and genetic technologies to help discover targets that drugs could act upon – one of the most important scientific steps to enable a new drug to be developed.They aim to improve on current drugs, some of which are hard to administer and have severe side effects.The team has been awarded £8 million from Research Councils UK (RCUK) as part of its Global Challenges Research Fund to lead the network.Coordinator of the network, Professor Graham Sandford from Durham’s Department of Chemistry, said: “Whilst there has been significant progress in the control and elimination of neglected tropical diseases in the last ten years, public health programmes are losing the battle against leishmaniasis and Chagas disease. Both diseases represent a huge challenge for Lower Middle Income Countries in endemic regions of South America, Africa and Asia.

  “By enhancing the capabilities of 14 worldwide partner institutions we hope we can really transform the way modern genetic and chemical technologies can be focused on neglected tropical diseases.”Paul Denny, Associate Professor in Durham’s Department of Biosciences and the network’s UK HUB leader highlights the importance of the project, not just in providing pathways to new drugs but also in providing a sustainable network of highly trained researchers. He said: "Robust validation of targets has been identified as a problem for the pharmaceutical industry, with millions spent on drug discovery programmes, e.g. for anti-cancer agents, which ultimately fail due to poor target identification“We will also train a generation of scientists to carry this work into the future and help alleviate the devastation caused by leishmaniasis and C.With over 350 million people worldwide considered at risk from leishmaniasis, and more than 20,000 deaths each year, as well as around seven million people suffering with Chagas disease in Latin America alone, the effect on health and well-being in these regions is devastating.The two diseases result in serious illness, disability and fatalities across the affected countries.

  最新研究一:将时间花费在接吻虫上面

  它们被称为“接吻虫”,它们传播的疾病很少成为头条新闻,但感染全世界700万人。恰加斯病是一种被一些最贫穷的拉丁美洲国家的昆虫传播的热带病,造成了巨大的负担。现在由杜伦大学率领的全球科学家网络将共同努力为这种被忽视的疾病找到新的药物靶点。他们还将针对利什曼病,这是一种影响发展中国家非常贫困的疾病,每年有超过70万例新发病例被沙尘叮咬传播。确定新的药物目标,研究人员将使用新的化学和遗传技术来帮助发现药物可以采取的目标 - 是开发新药物的最重要的科学步骤之一他们的目标是改善目前的药物,其中一些难以管理,并产生严重的副作用。该团队已经从英国研究委员会(RCUK)获得800万英镑,作为其全球挑战研究基金的一部分,领导该网络。来自杜伦大学化学系的网络协调员Graham Sandford教授说:“过去十年来,在控制和消除被忽视的热带病方面取得了重大进展,公共卫生项目正在失去与利什曼病和查加斯病的斗争。这两种疾病对南美洲,非洲和亚洲流行地区的中低收入国家构成巨大挑战。

  “通过提高14个全球伙伴机构的能力,我们希望我们能够真正转变现代遗传和化学技术可以集中在被忽视的热带病的方式。”杜伦大学生物科学系副教授保罗·丹尼(Paul Denny)和网络英国HUB领导人,强调了该项目的重要性,而不仅仅是为新药提供途径,而且还提供了一个受过高度培训的研究人员的可持续网络。他说:“目标的鲁棒验证已被确定为制药行业的一个问题,数百万人用于药物发现计划,例如用于抗癌药物,由于目标识别不良而最终失败。“我们还将训练一代科学家携带这项工作,帮助缓解利什曼病和恰加斯病造成的破坏。”破坏性影响,全球有超过3.5亿人被视为处于利什曼病的风险之下,每年有2万多人死亡,以及仅在拉丁美洲患有恰加斯病的约700万人,对这些地区的健康和福祉的影响是毁灭性的。这两种疾病在受影响国家造成严重的疾病,残疾和死亡。

  全球方法:杜伦大学将通过与寄生虫学,化学,生物物理学,生物化学和分子和细胞生物学等科学学科的地方性合作伙伴合作,率先引领全球热带病网络,共有来自14个不同研究所的50多名学者。该网络将致力于实现科学进步的共同目标,这将为药物发展管道提供药物,为制药行业提供利兹利马和恰加斯病的新的有效药物靶点。该倡议还将确保有一个可持续的全球研究人员网络,可以继续推动研究被忽视的热带疾病,一般在英国和全球舞台上。印度加尔各答印度化学生物学研究所的Nahid Ali教授评论说:“与疾病诊断领域的不同合作者进行动态联系,了解疾病生物学和治疗学,将有助于管理这些疾病,从而产生重大的社会和经济影响。”

  Women have to ‘prove they are sports fans’

  Female sports fans struggle to be taken seriously and feel they are regarded as being less committed than male fans, according to research by Dr Stacey Pope, who answers some questions about her findings below.How is the experience of female sports fans different to that of their male counterparts?I have looked at the experience of female football and rugby fans and it’s not a level playing field when it comes to being a supporter. Female football and rugby union fans in my research say how they have to routinely ‘prove’ their status as ‘real’ fans – usually to male supporters. Common stereotypes of female sports fans have included that they lack sporting knowledge, are only interested in the sexual attractiveness of (male) star players and are not as passionate or committed as male fans. Media coverage also typically represents women in subordinate ways; for example, a cursory internet search for ‘female fans’ brings up numerous sexualised images, doing little to challenge the perceptions of women as inferior sports fans.

  How much research has been carried out on the subject of female sports fans?Perhaps this is partly as a result of popular assumptions and stereotypes of female fans, but very little research has examined women’s experiences as sports fans. Most studies have focused exclusively on male supporters and issues of fan rivalry or hooliganism, despite the minority of fans involved in fan violence in many countries.My work tackles head-on the lack of research on female sports fans. It also challenges the perceptions of women as inauthentic or inferior fans in comparison to male ‘authentic’ or ‘real’ supporters.

  How did you carry out your research and what did you find out?I drew on 85 in-depth interviews with football and rugby union fans from three generations in one area in the UK (Leicester). I found that sport plays a hugely important role in the lives and identities of many female fans. The research challenges popular and academic assumptions that sport only plays an important role in the lives of male fans, and claims that males are more likely to identify with being a fan and have higher levels of sporting knowledge.What came through the research was two female fan types: dedicated or highly committed ‘hot’ female fans and more casual ‘cool’ fans. Nearly 85% of the football fans (43 out of 51) and just under half of the rugby union fans (16 out of 34) could best be described as ‘hot’ sports fans. Of course, within the continuum between ‘hot’ and ‘cool’ there were also varying levels of fan attachment. There were no obvious generational distinctions, except that ‘older’ football fans were more likely to fit the ‘hot’ fan category than ‘older’ rugby fans.

  What role does sport play in the daily lives of the dedicated female fans?For the dedicated ‘hot’ fans, sport was an important aspect of their identity. These ‘hot’ fans mention their support for their club or make a conscious effort to tell people about their affiliation to the club. These female fans invested large amounts of time watching or thinking about sport, with some of the extreme ‘hot’ fans confessing to thinking about sport or their club ‘constantly’. The sport/sports club was an important part of who they are, for example, in the words of one female football fan:“Football’s always been my life. Like I said, playing it, watching it...I like lots of different sports but football’s always been the one if you like...the love of my life. That’s me; that’s part of me” (Janice, age 53, occasional attendee).For female rugby union fans, sport also played a critical role in their everyday lives, with many drawing on the family to illustrate the importance that the club held for them, for example:“In order of priority it’s sort of, it’s (Leicester) Tigers and then it’s my other half and then it’s the kids and the grandkids, you know, and everybody, they all know it. They’ve been told that that’s the order of importance” (Julia, age 68, season ticket holder).

  How else does their dedication to their club affect them?As you can imagine, match day results produced extremes in terms of emotional responses! Given the amount of time that ‘hot’ fans devote to their clubs and the impact results usually had on their mood, relations with close relatives were also affected. For example, because the club formed such a significant part of their lives, organising other activities became extremely complicated, with some describing how family weddings needed to be planned carefully not to coincide with football. Some of the intense ‘hot’ football fans also confessed that they could not enter a relationship with a supporter who did not follow the same club. As one female fan put it:“It’s a big part of my life, and if he can’t accept me as a Leicester fan then I’m afraid I don’t want to know you, sort of thing” (Deborah, age 51, member).Many ‘hot’ female fans also had rooms or even a home dressed in club colours and products, with some of the football women sporting tattoos of the club to demonstrate their allegiance.For the smaller number of ‘cool’ female fans, sport did not impact upon their lives in the same manner. Sport was viewed more as a ‘hobby’ or form of ‘entertainment’ – a leisure choice or “just one of the things I do in my spare time” (Adaline, age 62, season ticket holder).‘Cool’ fans did not spend much time watching or thinking about sport in the week, and the club was not typically important enough for them to be affected by match results.

  最新研究二:女人必须“证明自己是运动爱好者”

  根据Stacey Pope博士的研究,她回答了下面关于她的调查结果的一些问题,女性体育迷们很难被认真对待,认为他们被认为不如男性粉丝那么受到重视。

  女性体育迷的体验与男同志的体验有何不同?我看过女足球迷和橄榄球爱好者的经历,在支持者方面并不是一个公平的竞争环境。在我的研究中,女足球迷和橄榄球联盟球迷说他们如何定期“证明”他们作为“真正的”球迷的地位 - 通常是对男性的支持者。女性运动爱好者的常见刻板印象包括:他们缺乏运动知识,只对(男性)明星球员的性吸引力感兴趣,并不像男性球迷那样充满激情或致命。媒体报道也通常代表妇女从属的方式; 例如,粗略的互联网搜索“女粉丝”带来了许多色情图像,几乎没有挑战女性作为劣质体育迷的看法。

  对女性运动爱好者进行了多少研究?也许这部分是由于女性粉丝的普遍假设和刻板印象,但很少有研究检查了女性体育迷的经验。大多数研究都集中在男性支持者和粉丝对抗或流氓主义的问题上,尽管许多粉丝参与了很多国家的粉丝暴力。我的工作主要是因为缺乏对女性体育迷的研究。与男性“真实”或“真实”的支持者相比,它也挑战了女性作为不忠实或劣势的粉丝的看法。

  你是如何进行研究的,你发现了什么?我在英国(莱斯特)的一个地区,对三代的足球和橄榄球联盟球迷进行了85次深入访谈。我发现体育在许多女粉丝的生活和身份方面起着非常重要的作用。这项研究挑战了流行和学术假设,体育运动在男性球迷的生活中起着重要作用,并声称男性更有可能被认为是粉丝,具有较高水平的运动知识。研究的结果是两种女性粉丝类型:专用或高度承诺的“热”女性粉丝和更休闲的“酷”粉丝。近85%的足球迷(51人中有43人)以及不到一半的橄榄球联盟球迷(34人中的16人)最能被称为“热门”运动迷。当然,在“热”和“酷”之间的连续性中,风扇附件也有不同程度的变化。没有明显的代际区别,除了“老”的球迷比“老”的橄榄球迷更有可能适应“热门”粉丝类别。

  体育在专门的女粉丝的日常生活中扮演什么角色?对于专门的“热门”球迷来说,运动是他们身份的一个重要方面。这些“热门”球迷提到他们对俱乐部的支持,或者有意识地告诉人们他们与俱乐部的关系。这些女粉丝投入大量时间观看或考虑运动,一些极端的“热门”球迷承认考虑运动或他们的俱乐部“不断”。运动/体育俱乐部是他们的重要组成部分,例如一个女足球迷的话:“足球一直是我的生命。像我说的那样玩,看着它...我喜欢很多不同的运动,但如果你喜欢我的生活的爱,足球一直是一个。那是我; 这是我的一部分“(Janice,53岁,偶尔参加者)。对于女性橄榄球联盟球迷来说,体育运动在他们的日常生活中也扮演着至关重要的角色,许多人在家人身上说明了俱乐部为他们举办的重要性,例如:“按照优先顺序,这是(莱斯特)老虎,然后是我的另一半,然后是孩子们和孙子,你知道,每个人,他们都知道。他们被告知这是重要的顺序“(Julia,68岁,季票)。

  他们对俱乐部的奉献又如何影响他们?你可以想象,匹配的日子结果在情绪反应方面产生了极限!鉴于“热门”球迷投身于俱乐部的时间和影响力通常与他们的心情有关,与近亲的关系也受到影响。例如,因为俱乐部生活中很大一部分,组织其他活动变得非常复杂,有些则描述如何仔细计划家庭婚礼,不要与足球相吻合。一些激烈的“热”足球迷也承认,他们不能与没有跟随同一俱乐部的支持者建立关系。一个女粉丝说:“这是我一生的很大一部分,如果他不能接受我作为莱斯特的粉丝,那么恐怕我不想认识你,就是这样的”(Deborah,51岁,成员)。许多“热”女粉丝也有房间,甚至一个穿着俱乐部颜色和产品的家庭,一些足球女子体育俱乐部的纹身来表现自己的效忠。对于较少数量的“酷”女性粉丝,体育运动不会以同样的方式影响他们的生活。体育被视为更多的“娱乐”或“娱乐”的形式 - 休闲选择或“只是我在业余时间做的事情之一”(阿琳娜,62岁,季票)。“酷”球迷在本周没有花时间观看或考虑体育运动,俱乐部通常不够重要,因为他们受到比赛结果的影响。

  From ashtrays full of cigarette butts to smoke-free environments

  This week, it will be ten years since the smoking ban for enclosed workplaces in the UK came into force. Dr Andrew Russell from the Life of Breath research project takes a look at how things have changed.Do you remember what it was like pre-2007?t is hard to think back now to what English pubs and clubs were like before the law about smoke-free public places came into force. I remember the dense fog, the smell of tobacco smoke on your clothes after a night out, the ashtrays loaded with cigarette butts. Those lucky enough to be much younger than me probably won’t remember as it’s ten years ago when the law began. But it has been described as ‘the most important piece of public health legislation for a generation’.

  What were the challenges in getting to that point?Various options were proposed, including a plan to exempt private clubs and pubs that didn’t serve food (the so-called ‘wet pubs’). In some parts of England this would have excluded over half of all licensed premises. Lots of lobbying from a broad range of campaigners led to this proposal being quashed.The clinching argument was that smoke-free enclosed public places were a workers’ health issue. People with jobs forcing them to remain in smoky environments often had no choice but to do so. The idea that these people were involuntarily subject to the health risks of second-hand smoke eventually pushed the legislation through.

  What were the immediate results from the new law?Apart from making public places more pleasant and healthier to be in, there was a spike in people deciding to stop smoking as a result of the ban. Everyone knew the health risks of smoking – the ban simply cut out many of the places where people might have wanted to light up.There were other, unforeseen benefits as well. Figures soon showed a significant decline in hospital admissions for heart attacks, asthma and lung infections. In the year following the law, there were 2.4 percent fewer heart attack cases recorded in Accident and Emergency departments than the year before. 2.4 percent may not sound very much, but that represents 1200 fewer cases in the country as a whole.These figures are even more dramatic if you bear in mind that many workplaces had already gone smoke free before the law came into effect. This makes the fact we can see a distinct drop before and after July 1st 2007 even more remarkable.

  Were there any other consequences?Some companies went further than required by the new law. The Association of Train Operator Companies and Network Rail decided to make all station premises smoke-free. Perhaps they were remembering the fire at Kings Cross underground station in 1987. It killed 31 and was blamed on a lit match thrown away by a smoker leaving the station.The smoke free law also made people more aware of the dangers of second hand smoke everywhere, including in their own homes. In addition, the success of the measure gave people the courage to tackle other smoking-related issues that might once have seemed impossible to address, such as smuggled tobacco, plain packaging and other forms of advertising at the point of sale.Just think of the slew of further policies which have come into place since then.Vending machines (where young people could often obtain their cigarettes out of the watchful eye of adults) are a thing of the past. It is now illegal to buy cigarettes if you are under 18. Taxes on tobacco products have continued to rise. Smoking in private cars where children are present is banned. Ever since the law came into force, smoking rates have gone down year on year. Young people in particular seem to be going off the idea of smoking.

  Where do we go from here?Smuggled cigarettes make it much cheaper for people to carry on smoking and are a problem in some parts of the country. Smoking rates in pregnancy, with the risks this carries for mother and baby, are also high in some parts.Surprisingly, given the ease with which tobacco addiction can be managed these days, smoking is still allowed in some NHS grounds. E-cigarettes have muddied the waters of tobacco control, although they are without doubt safer than cigarettes. One of the questions about e-cigarettes is whether they should be part of the smoke-free laws, or whether they are harmless for bystanders.Whatever one’s views on that score, support for smoke-free places is higher now than it was when the law first came in.

  What research is taking place at Durham?Durham University, through FUSE, the Centre for Translational Research in Public Health, works closely with Fresh, the regional tobacco control office, on a number of different projects. We are also conducting research into what is being done at the global level to counteract the power of tobacco and the pervasive influence of the tobacco industry.The Wellcome Trust funded Life of Breath project at Durham and Bristol universities works closely with members of the British Lung Foundation’s ‘Breathe Easy’ groups. Some of the people in these groups are suffering the consequences of a long term, smoking-related illness. Findings from this research show how frequently people with lung conditions are highly sensitive to air quality. A smoke-filled environment for them is a nightmare. Children also suffer more from second hand smoke than adults, because their airways are smaller and they breathe faster.There are certainly very few people, whether smokers former smokers or second hand smokers, who would like us to return to the smoke-filled clubs and bars of pre-2007 times.

  最新研究三:从烟灰缸充满烟头到无烟环境

  本周,英国封闭式工作场所的禁烟将是十年。 安德鲁·拉塞尔博士来自生命的气息研究项目需要看看事情是如何改变的。你还记得2007年之前吗?现在很难回想起关于无烟公共场所生效的法律面前的英文酒吧和俱乐部。我记得浓浓的雾气,一夜之间你的衣服上有烟雾的烟雾,烟灰缸装满了烟头。那些比我更年轻的幸运者可能不记得十年前的法律开始了。但它被描述为“一代人最重要的公共卫生立法”。到达这一点的挑战是什么?提出了各种选择,包括免除私人俱乐部和不提供食物的酒吧(所谓的“湿酒吧”)的计划。在英格兰的一些地方,这将排除超过一半的持牌处所。来自广泛的运动者的许多游说导致这个提案被撤销。令人讨厌的论据是,无烟封闭的公共场所是工人的健康问题。有工作迫使他们留在黑烟环境中的人们别无选择,只好这样做。这些人不由自主地受到二手烟的健康风险的想法最终推动了立法。

  新法律的直接结果是什么?除了让公众场所更加愉快和健康,除了禁令之外,还有人决定戒烟。每个人都知道吸烟的健康风险 - 禁令只是删除了许多人想要点燃的地方。还有其他一些意想不到的好处。数字显示,心脏病发作,哮喘和肺部感染住院率明显下降。在法律追究的当年,事故和紧急部门的心脏病发作案例比上年减少了2.4%。2.4%可能听起来不大,但整个国家的案例却低于1200例。如果您记住许多工作场所在法律生效之前已经无烟,这些数字更加戏剧化。这使得事实上,我们可以看到在2007年7月1 日之前和之后明显的下降更加显着。

  是否有其他后果?一些公司比新法律要求更高。火车经营公司和网络铁路公司协会决定让所有车站场所无烟。也许他们在1987年记得国王十字地铁站的火灾。他杀了31人,被一名烟火员抛出的点燃火柴归咎于离开车站。无烟法律也使人们更加了解包括在自己家中的无处不在的二手烟的危险。此外,这项措施的成功使人们有勇气解决其他一些似乎无法解决的与吸烟有关的问题,例如走私烟草,普通包装和其他形式的广告想想自那时以来发生的进一步政策。自动售货机(年轻人经常可以从大人注意的眼光中获取香烟)是过去的事情。如果您不满18岁,现在购买香烟是非法的。烟草制品的税收继续上涨。禁止在儿童在场的私家车吸烟。自法律生效以来,吸烟率同比下降。特别是年轻人似乎正在脱离吸烟的想法。

  我们从哪里走?挑战仍然存在,当然。走私香烟使人们吸烟成本便宜,是国内一些地方的一个问题。怀孕期间的吸烟率,母亲和婴儿的风险,在一些地方也很高。令人惊讶的是,鉴于烟草成瘾易于管理,这些日子里,一些NHS理由仍然允许吸烟。电子烟已经弄脏了烟草控制的水域,尽管它们比香烟更安全。关于电子烟的问题之一是,他们是否应该成为无烟法律的一部分,还是对旁观者是无害的。无论对这一分数有什么看法,现在支持无烟场所比法律第一次进入时更高。

  杜伦大学正在进行什么研究?杜伦大学通过FUSE,公共卫生转化研究中心,与区域烟草控制局的Fresh紧密合作,开展了一系列不同的项目。我们正在研究在全球范围内正在做的事情,以抵制烟草的威力和烟草行业的广泛影响。威康信托基金会资助的生命的气息在杜伦大学和布里斯托尔大学的项目与英国肺脏基金会的成员密切合作,“呼吸舒畅”群体。这些群体中的一些人正在遭受长期与吸烟有关的疾病的后果。研究结果显示肺气病人对空气质素的敏感程度是多少。他们的烟雾充沛的环境是一场恶梦。孩子们比二手烟还多,因为他们的呼吸道较小,呼吸速度更快。希望我们能够在2007年之前回到充满烟雾的俱乐部和酒吧的烟者以前的吸烟者或二手吸烟者肯定很少。

  四、校园环境

  1.住宿情况

  Durham is a uniquely beautiful place and we are fortunate as a University community to work and live in many wonderful buildings. But we want to do better still. In order to deliver our University Strategy, we need a world-class estate. To achieve that we will need to make major investments, both in building new departmental space, teaching space, residential accommodation and student facilities, and in improving the condition of our existing estate.

  Our goals:Develop an academic estate that will allow the University to deliver world-class education, research and student experience;Ensure the long-term availability of suitable residential accommodation;Ensure the continuing renewal and maintenance of our estate;Improve the environmental sustainability and ease of travel around our estate and city locations.

  We are already doing well:Durham University’s position as a world-leading centre of research in astronomy and cosmology was reaffirmed with the opening of the iconic Ogden Centre for Fundamental Physics building in March 2017. The Centre has benefitted from the generous support of The Ogden Trust and The Wolfson Foundation and was designed by Studio Libeskind.Durham University’s £25 million investment in the New World Computing Programme supports high performance computing of the first rank and will enable new working platforms across the University.At Collingwood College major plans are underway to establish a new 200-seat arts centre, a gym extension, a Yoga/Pilates studio, an enlarged Junior Common Room and a bar conservatory, all thanks to a transformational gift from alumnus Mark Hillery.By 2027, we will:Deliver a new estate in three phases, beginning with the construction of a Centre for Teaching and Learning, new buildings for Mathematical Sciences and Computer Science, a new sports park at Maiden Castle, two new Colleges at Mount Oswald and some remodelling of our buildings on the Peninsula.Deliver a second phase of estate development from c.2020-2023. This will begin with a new Business School at Elvet Waterside. There will also be new developments at Elvet Riverside as we build new facilities for our Arts and Humanities Departments.Deliver a third phase of estate development at our Science Site to ensure that our laboratory-based science Departments have facilities to match their international reputations.Deliver repairs to existing buildings (both Collegiate and academic) such that 85% of our buildings are of a very high standard by 2027.Establish and nurture four to six new Colleges through the life of he new University Strategy.

  杜伦大学是一个独特的美丽的地方,我们幸运的是大学社区工作和生活在许多美好的建筑物。但是我们还想做得更好。为了辅助我们的大学策略,我们需要一个世界级的房地产。要实现这一目标,我们将需要在建立新的部门空间,教学空间,住宿和学生设施以及改善现有房地产条件方面进行重大投资。

  我们会:开发学术遗产,使大学能够提供世界一流的教育,研究和学习经验;确保长期提供合适的住宅;确保持续更新和维护我们的遗产;改善环境的可持续性,以及我们的房地产和城市地点的便利。我们已经做得很好,杜伦大学作为世界领先的天文和宇宙学研究中心的地位得到了重申,并于2017年3月开设了标志性的奥格登基础物理中心。该中心受益于奥格登信托基金会和沃尔夫森基金会的大力支持,由Studio Libeskind设计。杜伦大学投资2500万英镑的新世界计算机计划支持高性能计算的第一名,并将为大学创造新的工作平台。在科林伍德学院主要正计划建立一个新的200个座位的艺术中心,体育馆延伸,瑜伽/普拉提工作室,扩大小型公共休息室和酒吧温室,这一切都归功于一个转型的礼物从校友马克·希勒里。但是还有很多事情要来,到2027年,我们将:分三个阶段提供新的房地产,首先是建立一个教学和学习中心,数学科学和计算机科学新建筑,少女城堡的新体育公园,奥斯瓦尔德山的两所新学院,以及我们建筑物的一些重建半岛。从二零一二至二零零二年度开始进行第二期房地产开发。这将从Elvet Waterside 的新商学院开始。在Elvet Riverside也将有新的发展,我们为艺术和人文部门建立新的设施。在我们的科学网站进行第三阶段的房地产开发,以确保我们实验室科学部门具有符合其国际声誉的设施。对现有建筑物(大学和学术)进行维修,使得我们的建筑物的85%在2027年之前具有很高的标准。通过新大学战略的生活,建立和培育四至六个新的学院。

  五、杰出校友(源自网络,因篇幅有限无法逐一陈述,请谅解,排名不分先后)

  杜伦大学校友在各种组织以及如年度聚会、聚餐、舞会等活动上一直表现得很活跃。从国际校友会到学院校友会再到各种校友运动团体,目前共有67个与杜伦大学相关的协会为109,000多名在世的校友服务。许多杜伦大学校友在政界、法律界、科学界、学术界、商界、艺术界、媒体界、运动界、以及其他领域都做出了巨大的贡献。

  米尔顿·马尔盖爵士,塞拉利昂的首位首相。约翰·道格拉斯,昆士兰的第7任总理。亨利·荷兰,首位纳兹福德子爵,1887年至1892年间的殖民地事务大臣。

  赫伯特·拉明和巴伦·拉明,领导了连环杀手哈罗德·西普曼案件的调查,并且以Baby P的死为线索彻底调查了英国的社会服务状况,他们1960年毕业于应用社会研究专业,与他们一起毕业的还有戴姆·卡罗琳·斯威夫特, 西普曼案件的首席律师。

  在研究领域,杜伦大学的毕业生包括坦普尔顿奖获得者约翰·巴罗教授受美国宇航局邀请研究阿波罗11号从月球带回岩石样本的乔治·布朗爵士亚原子粒子K介子的共同发现者乔治·罗契斯特教授,以及皇家学会科普利奖章的获得者哈罗德·杰弗里斯爵士还有前英国地质调查局的局长金斯利·查尔斯·邓纳姆爵士(地理学,1930),现任卡迪夫大学副校长戴维·格兰特博士,杜伦大学副校长克里斯·希金斯博士,兰卡斯特大学副校长保罗·韦林斯也都是杜伦大学的毕业生。

  公平贸易组织Traidcraft的创立者理查德·亚当斯鹰眼跟踪球系统的发明者保罗· 霍金斯(人工智能博士), 社区服务志愿组织的行政总裁伊丽莎白·胡德里斯夫人(社会学), 福特汽车公司前总裁和首席运营官尼克·谢勒爵士(德语,1966),制作了《酷狗宝贝》的阿德曼动画公司的共同创始人戴维·斯普罗克斯顿(地理,1976),伊甸园计划的共同创始人蒂姆·斯密特(考古学和人类学)以及英国货币委员会委员大卫·沃尔顿(经济学和数学,1984)。

  杰出的新闻记者和媒体专家包括1967年至1981年《星期日泰晤士报》的编辑哈罗德·埃文斯爵士《星期日电讯报》的记者奈杰尔·法恩奈德(哲学)和英国广播公司六点档新闻主持人乔治·阿拉加。马修·阿姆罗里瓦拉(法律和政治学,1984)是英国广播公司新闻频道和《BBC一周新闻》的主持人。毕蒂·巴克斯(1955)是BBC儿童栏目《蓝色彼得》的前任制片人。亚瑟·博斯特罗姆)因在英国广播公司一档长期的情景喜剧《Allo 'Allo》中扮演克拉布特里官员而出名。杰米·坎贝尔是电影制片人,与阿拉斯泰尔·福瑟吉尔一起成为了《蓝色星球》、《地球脉动》、和《地球》等系列的制片人。希拉·弗加特(现代语言学,1988)是英国广播公司五电台早餐直播秀的现任主持人,而洛林·海葛塞是第一位英国广播公司一台的女性台长。克里斯·特里尔是一位纪录片制片人、作家和冒险家,因是唯一一位通过皇家海军陆战队测试的平民而获得荣誉的绿色贝雷帽而成名。

  在体育领域,威尔·嘉灵和菲尔·格兰威尔都曾是英格兰橄榄球队的队长, 威尔·绿林曾任副队长。奥运会三级跳远金牌获得者乔纳森·爱德华兹,1992年夏季奥运会单人皮划艇运动员韦德·霍尔-克雷格斯北京奥运会铜牌获得者斯蒂芬·罗博瑟姆,前英格兰板球队队长纳赛尔·侯赛因,以及现任队长安德鲁·斯特劳斯。

  杜伦大学多年来培育的人才在全球各领域做出贡献,包括前英国陆军总参谋长理查德·丹纳特,即时回放系统发明人保罗·霍金斯等;已故的中华人民共和国香港事务顾问杜叶锡恩亦毕业于该校 。

  以上内容由出国留学网www.liuxue86.com独家翻译,版权归出国留学网所有,未经出国留学网授权许可,任何公司任何人不得转载,违者必追究法律责任!

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