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美国范德堡大学基本概况

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学校名称: 美国范德堡大学 Vanderbilt University

所在位置:美国,3900 Hillsboro RDNashville, YN 37215USA

QS排名:212

USNEWS排名:63

学费:43838 美金

录取率:0.13

学校中文网址:https://meiguo.liuxue86.com/school/9276/

  美国的范德堡大学始建于1873年,是美国著名的大学也是享誉世界的私立研究型大学,是常春藤盟校之一,那么跟着出国留学网一起来了解下美国范德堡大学基本概况吧,欢迎阅读。

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  一、关于范德堡大学

  Vanderbilt University (also known informally as Vandy)is a private research university located in Nashville, Tennessee. Founded in 1873, it was named in honor of shipping and rail magnate Cornelius Vanderbilt, who provided the school its initial $1 million endowment despite having never been to the South. Vanderbilt hoped that his gift and the greater work of the university would help to heal the sectional wounds inflicted by the Civil War.Today, Vanderbilt enrolls approximately 12,000 students from all 50 U.S. states and over 100 foreign countries in four undergraduate and six graduate and professional schools. Several research centers and institutes are affiliated with the university, including the Vanderbilt Institute for Public Policy Studies, Institute for Space and Defense Electronics, Freedom Forum First Amendment Center, Dyer Observatory, and Vanderbilt University Medical Center, the only Level I trauma center in Middle Tennessee. With the exception of the off-campus observatory, satellite medical clinics, and the Institute, all of the university's facilities are situated on its 330-acre (1.3 km2) campus in the heart of Nashville, 1.5 miles (2.4 km) from downtown. Despite its urban surroundings, the campus itself is a national arboretum and features over 300 different species of trees and shrubs.Vanderbilt is ranked as one of the best universities in the United States by several institutional rankings. Additionally, in 2017 Vanderbilt was ranked the 10th most innovative in the world.Vanderbilt is a founding member of the Southeastern Conference and has been the conference's only private school for a half-century.The Vanderbilt Commodores field 15 intercollegiate varsity teams.

  范德堡大学(也被称为Vandy是该大学的非正式的名称)是位于田纳西州纳什维尔的私立研究型大学。范德堡大学成立于1873年,以航运和铁路巨人科尼利斯范德堡大学而命名,就是这个伟大的人提供了学校最初的100万美元的捐赠,尽管他从未到过南方。范德堡德希望他的礼物和大学的更大的工作将有助于治愈内战造成的伤势。今天,范德堡大学在四个本科和六个研究生和专业学校招收了来自全美50 个州和100多个外国的约12,000名学生。几个研究中心和机构都附属于大学,包括范德堡大学公共政策研究所研究,研究所航天和国防电子,自由论坛第一修正案中心,戴尔天文台和范德堡大学医学中心,唯一的一级创伤中心在中东田纳西州。除校外天文台外 、卫星诊所、和研究所、该校所有的设施都位于其330英亩(1.3公里2)校园在纳什维尔的心脏地带,距市中心1.5英里(2.4公里)。尽管它的城市环境,校园本身是一个国家植物园,拥有300多种不同种类的树木和灌木。范德堡大学被几个机构排名列为美国最好的大学之一。另外,在2017年,范德堡大学(Vanderbilt)在全球排名第十,创新最高。范德堡大学是东南会议的创始成员,一直是会议唯一的半个世纪的私立学校。所述的范德堡大学拥有15校际运动队。

  二、历史沿革

  第一阶段:早期创始阶段

  In the years prior to the American Civil War of 1861–1865, the Methodist Episcopal Church South had been considering the creation of a regional university for the training of ministers in a location central to its congregations. Following lobbying by Nashville bishop Holland Nimmons McTyeire, the author of an essay about black slavery whose father was "a cotton planter and a slaveholder" in South Carolina, church leaders voted to found "The Central University of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South" in Nashville in 1872.However, lack of funds and the ravaged state of the Reconstruction Era South delayed the opening of the college.The following year, McTyeire stayed at the New York City residence of Cornelius Vanderbilt, whose second wife was Frank Armstrong Crawford Vanderbilt (1839–1885), a cousin of McTyeire's wife, Amelia Townsend McTyeire (1827–1891); both women were from Mobile, Alabama. Indeed, the McTyeires had met at St. Francis Street Methodist Church in Mobile. Cornelius Vanderbilt, who was the wealthiest man in the United States at the time, was considering philanthropy as he was at an advanced age. He had been planning to establish a university on Staten Island, New York, in honor of his mother. However, McTyeire convinced him to donate $500,000 to endow Central University in order to "contribute to strengthening the ties which should exist between all sections of our common country."

  科尼利厄斯范德堡大学,在1861年至1865年的美国内战之前的几年里,卫理公会教派的南方教会一直在考虑建立一所地区大学以训练牧师在其教会的中心位置。在纳什维尔的主教荷兰尼蒙斯麦克特雷的游说下,他的父亲是南卡罗莱纳的棉花种植园主和奴隶的作者,他在纳什维尔的一篇关于黑人奴隶制的文章中进行了投票,并于1872年在纳什维尔找到了南方卫理公会教堂的中央大学。然而,由于缺乏资金和重建时期的破坏,南方推迟了大学的开放。

  接下来的一年,麦克蒂尔在Cornelius Vanderbilt的纽约住所里,他的第二任妻子是弗兰克阿姆斯特朗克劳福德范德堡大学(1839-1885),他是麦特雷的妻子,阿米莉亚德森德麦克泰雷(1827-1891),这两名妇女都来自阿拉巴马州。事实上,麦特瑞斯在圣弗朗西斯街卫理公会教堂举行了集会。Cornelius Vanderbilt当时是美国最富有的人,他正在考虑慈善事业,因为他在年纪大的时候。为了纪念他的母亲,他一直计划在纽约的斯塔顿岛建立一所大学。然而,麦克提尔说服他捐赠50万美元给中央大学,以便为加强我们共同国家的各个部门之间的联系做出贡献。

  第二阶段:纪念馆

  The endowment was eventually increased to $1 million roughly $19,973,867 in 2015 dollarsand would be only one of two philanthropic causes financially supported by Vanderbilt. Though he never expressed any desire that the university be named after himself, McTyeire and his fellow trustees rechristened the school in his honor. Vanderbilt died in 1877 without seeing the school named after him.They acquired land formerly owned by Texas Senator John Boyd (who chose to patronize the establishment of Trinity University, a Presbyterian university in San Antonio, Texas instead), later inherited by his granddaughter and her husband, Confederate Congressman Henry S. Foote, who had built Old Central, a house still standing on campus.One of the founding trustees, Hezekiah William Foote, was a Confederate veteran and the owner of four plantations in Mississippi, including Mount Holly. McTyeire named Landon Garland (1810–1895), his mentor from Randolph-Macon College in Virginia and then-Chancellor of the University of Mississippi, as chancellor. Garland shaped the school's structure and hired the school's faculty, many of whom were renowned scholars in their respective fields. However, most of this faculty left after disputes with Bishop McTyeire, including over pay rates.When the first fraternity chapter, Phi Delta Theta, was established on campus in 1876, it was shut down by the faculty, only to be reestablished as a secret society in 1877. Meanwhile, Old Gym, designed by Dutch-born architect Peter J. Williamson, was built in 1879–1880.By 1883, the Board of Trust passed a resolution allowing fraternities on campus, and more chapters were established in 1884.

  2015年,捐赠基金最终增加到100万美元,约为19,973,867美元。这笔资金将是范德堡金融支持的两项慈善事业中的一项。尽管他从未表达过任何想让这所大学以自己的名字命名的愿望,但McTyeire和他的同伴们以他的荣誉重新命名了这所学校。范德堡堡在1877年去世,却没有看到学校以他命名。他们曾经获得土地属于德克萨斯州参议员约翰·博伊德(选择光顾三一大学的建立,长老会大学在圣安东尼奥,德克萨斯州),后来继承了他的孙女和她的丈夫邦联国会议员亨利富特建立旧中央,这所房子依然站在校园。Hezekiah William Foote的一位创始受托人是一名南方联盟的老兵,他是密西西比州的四个种植园的主人包括霍莉山。从1872年到1875年的信托委员会的财务主管亚历山大小佩奇格林,他的肖像悬挂在柯克兰大厅,是一名卫理公会牧师和前奴隶主。他的女婿,罗伯特a杨,是卫理公会牧师,从1874年到1882年担任信托委员会的财务秘书,于1902年从董事会退休。第一座建筑主要建筑,后来被称为柯克兰大厅,由威廉克劳福德史密斯设计,他是一名南方联盟的老兵,也是帕特农神庙的设计者;它的建造始于1874年。在1875年秋天,大约有200名学生在范德堡大学求学,10月份,这所大学就被奉献了。麦克泰雷主教被范德堡大学任命为终身信托委员会主席,这是他捐赠基金的一项规定。McTyeire的名字是Landon Garland,他是弗吉尼亚州的马夫-麦克恩学院的导师,当时是密西西比大学的校长。加兰塑造了学校的结构,并聘请了该校的教师,其中许多人都是各自领域的知名学者。然而,大部分教员都是在与麦特雷主教发生纠纷后离职的,其中包括支付工资。1876年,第一个兄弟会分会在校园成立,它被教师们关闭了,直到1877年才被重新确立为一个秘密社团。与此同时,由荷兰出生的建筑师彼得威廉森设计的旧健身房,建于1880-1880年间。到了1883年,信托理事会通过了一项决议,允许校园里的兄弟会并且在1884年建立了更多的分会。

  第三阶段:与卫理公会教派分裂

  During the first 40 years, the Board of Trust, and therefore the university, was under the control of the General Conference (the governing body) of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South.Tension grew between the university administration and the Conference over the future of the school, particularly over the methods by which members of the Vanderbilt Board of Trust would be chosen, and the extent that non-Methodists could teach at the school.Conflicts escalated after James H. Kirkland was appointed chancellor in 1893.Then the Southern Methodist Church congregations raised just $50,000 in a campaign to raise $300,000.After the Tennessee Centennial Exposition of 1897, a statue of Cornelius Vanderbilt, designed by Italian sculptor Giuseppe Moretti,was moved from the grounds of the Parthenon to the Vanderbilt campus.In 1905, Kirkland Hall burnt down, only to be rebuilt shortly after.Meanwhile, the Board of Trust voted to limit Methodist representation on the board to just five bishops.Former faculty member and bishop Elijah Hoss led a group attempting to assert Methodist control.In 1910, the board refused to seat three Methodist bishops. The Methodist Church took the issue to court and won at the local level. On March 21, 1914, the Tennessee Supreme Court ruled that the Commodore, and not the Methodist Church, was the university's founder and that the board could therefore seat whomever it wished. The General Conference in 1914 voted 151 to 140 to sever its ties with Vanderbilt; it also voted to establish a new university, Southern Methodist University, and to greatly expand Emory University.

  荷兰主教McTyeire,在最初的40年里,信托委员会以及大学,都在南方卫理公会主教派的大会(管理机构)的控制之下。大学管理与会议之间的紧张关系日益加剧,尤其是关于范德堡大学信托委员会成员的选择以及非卫理公会派教徒在学校的教学方式。1893年James H.Kirkland被任命为总理后,冲突升级。随后,南卫理公会教堂在一次筹集30万美元的活动中筹集了5万美元。在1897年的田纳西州百年博览会之后,Giuseppe Moretti的雕像,由意大利雕塑家Giuseppe Moretti设计,从神庙的庭院移到了范德堡大学的校园。1905年,Kirkland Hall烧毁了,只是在不久之后重建。与此同时,信托委员会投票决定将卫理公会的代表名额限制在5名主教中。前教师和主教Elijah Hoss领导了一个试图维护卫理公会控制的团体。1910年,董事会拒绝任命三名卫理公会主教。卫理公会教派把这个问题告上法庭,并在当地赢得了胜利。在1914年3月21日,田纳西最高法院裁定,康莫达尔而不是卫理公会教堂是该大学的创始人,因此董事会可以开始正常运作。1914年的联合国大会以151票对140票通过了与范德堡堡的关系。它还投票支持建立一所新的大学,南卫理公会大学,并大力扩展艾莫利大学。

  第四阶段:20世纪20年代第二次世界大战

  In the 1920s and 1930s, Vanderbilt University hosted two partly overlapping groups of scholars who had a large impact on American thought and letters: the Fugitives and the Agrarians. Meanwhile, Frank C. Rand, who served as the President and later Chairman of the International Shoe Company, donated US$150,000 to the university in 1925; Rand Hall was subsequently named for him.In 1933, the United Daughters of the Confederacy donated $50,000 (roughly $925,166 in 2015 dollars for the construction of Confederate Memorial Hall, designed by architect Henry C. Hibbs. It was completed in 1935.In the 1930s, Ernest William Goodpasture and his colleagues in the School of Medicine invented methods for cultivating viruses and rickettsiae in fertilized chicken eggs. This work made possible the production of vaccines against chicken pox, smallpox, yellow fever, typhus, Rocky mountain spotted fever and other diseases caused by agents that only propagate in living cells. Alfred Blalock, Professor of Surgery, and his assistant Vivian Thomas identified a decrease in blood volume and fluid loss outside the vascular bed as a key factor in traumatic shock and pioneered the use of replacement fluids for its treatment. In 1960, the School of Religion expelled a student who was one of the leaders of the emerging civil rights movement, James Lawson. Several faculty members resigned in protest.In 2005, Lawson was re-hired as a Distinguished University Professor for the 2006–2007 academic year, and named a Distinguished Alumnus for his achievements.The Vanderbilt Board of Trust in May 1962 voted to accept African Americans in all schools, and first undergraduates entered the school the fall of 1964.The university drew national attention in 1966 when it recruited Perry Wallace, the first African-American athlete in the Southeastern Conference (SEC). Wallace, from Nashville, played varsity basketball for Vanderbilt from 1967 to 1970, and faced considerable opposition from segregationists when playing at other SEC venues. In 2004, a student-led drive to retire Wallace's jersey finally succeeded.

  在20世纪20年代和30年代,范德堡堡大学主办了两个部分重叠的学者群体,他们对美国的思想和信件产生了巨大的影响;逃亡者和农民。与此同时,弗兰克兰德在1925年给这所大学捐赠了15万美元,他曾担任总统和后来的国际制鞋公司董事长。兰德霍尔后来以他的名字命名。1933年,联邦政府的女儿们捐赠了5万美元(约合925,166美元,用于建造由建筑师Henry C.Hibbs设计的南部邦联纪念大厅。这是在1935年完成的。在上世纪30年代,Ernest William Goodpasture和他在医学院的同事们发明了一种方法,在受精卵中培养病毒和蓖麻毒素。这项工作使疫苗的生产成为可能,疫苗的生产是针对水痘、天花、黄热病、斑疹伤寒、落基山斑疹热以及其他由只在活细胞中繁殖的药物引起的疾病。Alfred Blalock,外科教授,以及他的助手,薇薇安托马斯确定了血管床外的血流量和液体的减少,这是创伤性休克的一个关键因素,并开创了替代液体的治疗方法。二战期间,范德堡斯是美国131所大学和大学之一,参与了v-12海军学院的培训项目,为学生提供了一条通往海军委员会的道路。在二战期间,这一待遇挽救了无数人的生命。战后不久,1945年至1947年,范德堡堡大学的研究人员进行了一项由洛克菲勒基金会资助的实验,他们给800名孕妇提供了放射性铁,其中751种是药片,没有得到她们的同意。在1969年发表在美国流行病学杂志上的一篇文章中,估计有三个孩子死于该实验。当美国能源部试图调查1993年发生的事情时,大学告诉他们这些记录在上世纪70年代被销毁了。民主党参议员Jim Sasser称这个实验令人深感不安。在这些女性提起诉讼后,她们从范德堡大学获得了910万美元的资金,并在1998年从洛克菲勒基金会获得90万美元。1950年代和1960年代,老机械现在是欧文管理学院的一部分。1953年,宗教学校录取了这所大学的第一位非洲裔学生。1960年,宗教学校驱逐了一名学生,他曾是新兴民权运动的领袖之一,詹姆斯劳森。几名教师辞职以示抗议。2005年,劳森被重新聘为2006-2007学年的杰出大学教授,并以他的成就命名了一位杰出校友。1962年5月,范德堡堡信托委员会投票同意在所有学校接受非裔美国人,第一批大学生在1964年秋季入学。1966年,该大学聘请了美国东南地区第一位非裔运动员佩里华莱士(美国证交会),引起了全国的关注。从1967年到1970年,来自纳什维尔的华莱士在范德堡大学打篮球,并在其他的美国证交会比赛时遭到了种族隔离主义者的强烈反对。2004年一个由学生领导的、退休的华莱士泽西的运动终于成功了。

  第五阶段:1970年代至今1970s to present

  Vanderbilt University police car.In 1979, Vanderbilt acquired Peabody College, then called the "George Peabody College for Teachers", residing on 53 acres adjacent to the university.In the early 1980s, Vanderbilt University was a financial backer of the Corrections Corporation of America prior to its IPO.In 2002, the university decided to rename Confederate Memorial Hall, a residence hall on the Peabody campus to Memorial Hall. Nationwide attention resulted, in part due to a lawsuit by the Tennessee chapter of the United Daughters of the Confederacy.The Davidson County Chancery Court dismissed the lawsuit in 2003, but the Tennessee Court of Appeals ruled in May 2005 that the university must pay damages based on the present value of the United Daughters of the Confederacy's contribution if the inscription bearing the name "Confederate Memorial Hall" was removed from the building or altered. The Court of Appeals' decision has been critiqued by legal scholars. In late July 2005, the university announced that although it had officially renamed the building, and all university publications and offices will refer to it solely as Memorial Hall, the university would neither appeal the matter further, nor remove the inscription and pay damages.In August 2016, the university agreed to remove the word "Confederate" from the building after "anonymous donors" donated $1.2 million to repay the United Daughters of the Confederacy.

  In 2009, Vanderbilt instituted a no-loan policy. The policy states that any student granted admission and a need-based aid package will have an award that includes no student loans. In 2011, the Oakland Institute, an Oakland, California-based think tank, exposed Vanderbilt University's $26 million investment in EMVest Asset Management, a private equity firm "accused of 'land grabbing,' or taking over agricultural land used by local communities through exploitative practices and using it for large-scale commercial export farming … in five sub-Saharan African countries, including Mozambique, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe." The revelation made international headlines, with coverage in The Guardian, and led to student protests on campus in 2012. By 2013, Vanderbilt administrators had caved in to the public outcry and divested from EMVest.

  In 2015, Vanderbilt opened a new innovation center, the Wond'ry, as part of its Academic Strategic Plan.The three-story, 13,000-square foot building is meant to serve as an interdisciplinary hub of knowledge for the Vanderbilt community, serving as the location of hackathons, partnerships with the Nashville Entrepreneurship Center, and several social venture programs. Robert Grajewski, former president of Edison Nation Medical, a health care innovation incubator, and co-founder of Heritage Handcrafted and PRO-Techs Antimicrobial, will be the center's inaugural executive director. The four key programs at the center are the Innovation Garage, Social Entrepreneurship, Innovation Culture, and Entrepreneur Pre-Flight

  1979年,范德堡大学收购了博地大学,然后被称为乔治-博迪学院教师,居住在临近大学的53英亩土地上。上世纪80年代初,范德堡大学在IPO之前曾是美国矫正公司的财务支持者。

  2002年,这所大学决定重新命名南方纪念厅,这是位于博地迪校区的一个宿舍纪念大厅。在全国范围内引起了关注,部分原因是由于联邦政府的女儿们在田纳西州的一章中提起了诉讼。戴维森县2003年大法官法院驳回了诉讼,但田纳西上诉法院裁定2005年5月,大学必须支付赔偿金根据邦联的美国女儿的现值的贡献如果轴承的铭文的名字南方纪念馆从建筑中删除或修改。上诉法院的判决受到了法律学者的批评。2005年7月下旬,该大学宣布,尽管已正式更名为这栋楼,所有大学的出版物和办公室都将其命名为纪念馆,但这所大学既不会对此事提起上诉,也不会移除铭文,并支付赔偿金。2016年8月,该大学同意在匿名捐赠者捐赠120万美元以偿还联盟的联合女儿后,将联盟一词从大楼中移除。

  2009年,范德堡制定了一项无贷款政策。该政策规定,任何获得入学许可的学生和基于需求的援助计划都将获得一个不包括学生贷款的奖励。奥克兰理工学院,2011年奥克兰,加利福尼亚的智囊团,暴露的范德堡大学的2600万美元投资在emv资产管理、私人股本公司被控侵占土地或接管农业用地通过剥削当地社区实践和使用大规模商业出口农业…五个撒哈拉以南非洲国家,包括莫桑比克、南非、斯威士兰赞比亚津巴布韦。这一消息在卫报的报道中引起了国际媒体的关注,并在2012年引发了校园抗议活动。到2013年,范德堡堡的行政人员已经屈服于公众的抗议,并从EMVest剥离。

  2015年,范德堡大学开设了一个新的创新中心——世界大学,作为其学术战略计划的一部分。这个三层楼高的3万平方英尺的建筑旨在成为范德堡大学社区的跨学科知识中心,作为黑客松的所在地,纳什维尔创业中心合作以及一些社会风险项目。Robert Grajewski是爱迪生国家医疗公司的前总裁,他是医疗保健创新孵化器也是传统手工制作和技术的抗菌药物的联合创始人,他将成为该中心的执行主任。中心的四个关键项目是创新车库、社会企业家精神、创新文化、企业家。

  >>>请继续阅读第2页为范德堡大学教研优势的详细介绍。


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