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2018考研英语二真题及答案(文字版)

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  2018考研英语二真题及答案(文字版)

  Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  why do people read negative Internet comments and do other things that will obviously be painful?Because humans have an inherent need to 1 uncertainty,according to a recent study in Psychological Science. The new research reveals that the need to know is so strong that people wiill 2 to satisfy their curiosity even when it is clear the answer will 3.

  In a series of four experiments, behavioral scientists at the University of Chicago and the Wisconsin School of Business tested students' willingness to 4 themselves to unpleasant stimuli in an effort to satisfy curiosity. For one 5 each participant was shown a pile of pens that the researcher claimed were from a previous experiment. The twist?Half of the pens would 6 an electric shock when clicked.

  Twenty-seven students were told which pens were electrified;another twenty-seven were told only that some were electrified 7 left alone in the room, the students who did not know which ones would shock them clicked more pens and incurred more shocks than the students who knew what would 8 .Subsequent experiments reproduced this effect with other stimuli, 9 the sound of fingernails on a chalkboard and photographs of disgusting insects.

  The drive to 10 is deeply rooted in humans,much the same as the basic drives for 11 or shelter,says Christopher Hsee of the University of Chicago. Curiosity is often considered a good instinct-it can 12 new scientific advances, for instance-but sometimes such 13 can backfire.The insight that curiosity can drive you to do 14 things is a profound one.Unhealthy curiosity is possible to 15 ,however. In a final experiment,participants who were encouraged to 16 how they would feel after viewing an unpleasant picture were less likely to 17 to see such an image.These results suggest that imagining the 18 of following through on one's curiosity ahead of time can help determine 19 it is worth the endeavor. Thinking about long-term 20 is key to reducing the possible negative effects of curiosity."Hsee says.In other words,don't read online comments.

  1. A.resolveB.protectC.discussD.ignore

  2.A.refuseB.waitC.seekD.regret

  3.A.riseB.lastC.misleadD.hurt

  4.A.alertB.tieC.exposeD.treat

  5.A.messageB.trialC.reviewD.concept

  6.A.removeB.weakenC.deliverD.interrupt

  7. A.UnlessB.IfC.ThoughD.When

  8. A.happenB.continueC.disappearD.change

  9. A.rather thanB.such asC.regardless ofD.owing to

  10. A.disagreeB. forgiveC.forgetD.discover

  11. A.payB.marriageC.foodD.schooling

  12.A.begin withB.rest onC.learn fromD.lead to

  13.A. withdrawalB. inquiryC .persistenceD.diligence

  14.A.self-destiuctiveB.self-reliantC. self-evidentD.self-deceptive

  15.A.resistB.defineC.replaceD.trace

  16.A.predictB.overlookC.designD.conceal

  17. A.rememberB.chooseC.promiseD.pretend

  18. A.reliefB.planC.outcomeD.duty

  19.A. whetherB.whyC.whereD.how

  20. A.limitationsB.investmentsC.strategiesD.consequences

  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

  Text 1

  It is curious that Stephen Koziatek feels almost as though he has to justify his efforts to give his students a better future.

  Mr.Koziatek is part of something pioneering. He is a teacher at a New Hampshire high school where learning is not something of books and tests and mechanical memorization, but practical. When did it become accepted wisdom that students should be able to name the 13th president of the United States but be utterly overwhelmed by a broken bike chain?

  As Koziatek knows,there is learning in just about everything. Nothing is necessarily gained by forcing students to learn geometry at a graffitied desk stuck with generations of discarded chewing gum. They can also learn geometry by assembling a bicycle.

  But he’s also found a kind of insidious prejudice. Working with your hands is seen as almost a mark of inferiority.Schools in the family of vocational education “have that stereotype..that it’s for kids who can’t make it academically,”he says.

  On one hand,that viewpoint is a logical product of America’s evolution.Manufacturing is not the economic engine that it once was.The job security that the US economy once offered to high school graduates has largely evaporated.More education is the new principle.We want more for our kids,and rigitfully so.

  But the headlong push into bachelor’s degrees for all -and the subtle devaluing of anything less-misses an important point:That’s not the only thing the American economy neds.Yes,a bachelor’s degree opens more doors.But even now,54 percent of the jobs in the country are middle-skill jobs,such as construction and high-skill manufacturing.But only 44 percent of workers are adequately trained.

  In other words,at a time when the working class has turned the country on its political head,frustrated that the opportunity that once defined America is vanishing,one obvious solution is staring us in the face.There is a gap in working-class jobs,but the workers who need those jobs most aren’t equipped to do them.Koziatek’s Manchester School of Technology High School is trying to fill that gap.

  Koziatek’s school is a wake-up call.When education becomes one-size-fits-all,it risks overlooking a nation’s diversiy of gifts.

  21.A brokan bike chain is mentioned to show students’ lack of______.

  A.mechanical memorization

  B.academic training

  C.practical ability

  D.pioneering spirit

  22.There existsthe prejudice that vocational education is for kids who______.

  A.are financially disadvantaged

  B.are not academically successful

  C.have a stereotyped mind

  D.have no career motivation

  23.We can infer from Paragraph 5 that high school graduates______.

  A.are entitled to more “ducational privileges

  B.are reluctant to work in manufacturing

  C.used to have more job opportunities

  D.used to have big financial concerns

  24.The headlong push into bacheloi’s degrees for all_____.

  A.helps create a lot of middle-skill jobs

  B.may narrow the gap in working-class jobs

  C.is expected to yield a better-trained workforce

  D.indicates the overvaluing of higher education

  25.The author’s attitude toward Koziatek’s school can be described as_____.

  A.supportive

  B.disappointed

  C.tolerant

  D.cautious

  21. 答案 C practical ability

  这是一道细节题,根据题干关键词可定位至第二段最后一句话,意思是”什么时候这种观点变得可接受了呢?学生应该能够说出美国第十三任总统的名字,但是却完全对坏了的自行车链束手无策”。从作者使用问句的形式就可判断出作者并不接受这种观点,即学生只学会书本上的知识而不具备实际能力。再结合上一句话即本段第二句话,Mr Koziatek是New Hampshire高中的一名老师,在这所学校,学习不只是书本上的知识,或者是为了考试,也不是为了机械化的记忆,而是为了实际的技能。能看出,作者认为学生们缺少的是实际技能,所以答案是C practical ability.

  22. 答案 B are not academically successful

  这是一道具体细节题,根据题干关键词职业教育对孩子存在的偏见可定位至第四段最后一句,意思是“在很多职业化教育的学校中,有这样一种老套的思想,那就是,职业教育是针对那些在学术上不能成功的那些孩子的。”根据这句话可确定答案就是B are not academically successful 。其他选项均不符合文意。

  23.答案C used to have more job opportunities

  这是一道细节推断题,根据题干第五段和high school graduates 回到原文定位致第五段第三句,说到美国经济曾经提供给高中毕业生的那种the job security已经在很大程度上evaporated也就是消失了,那说明过去的时候高中毕业生是有职业安全感的,故选C,其他选项都不在定位处,可以排除。

  24.答案D indicate the overvaluing of higher education

  这是一道事实细节题,根据题干内容“the headlong push”找到出处是第六段开头But后,发现后面还有一个and...和其并列,所以主要关注对这两部分的评价,后面有明显的标点:冒号出现,冒号后说that is not the only thing the American economy needs. 可以看出这句话对前面的否定,选项中只有D选项动词overvalue是负面词,而且提到主题词education。故选D。这道题最适合用感情色彩来排除与D相反的其他三个选项。

  25.答案A supportive

  这是一道态度题,放在最末的态度题更倾向于到最后一段找答案。通过定位词Koziatek’s school 看到最后一段也确实提到了,说它是一个wake-up call。也就是在唤醒人们教育不应该是统一的形式,这样会overlooking a nation’s diversity of gifts,也就是忽视人才的差异性。所以可以看出作者是支持的态度。

  Text2

  While fossil fuels- coal,oil,gas- still generate roughly 85 percent of the world's energy supply,it'sclearer than ever that the future belongs to renewablesources such as wind and solar.The move to renewables is picking up momentumaround the world: They now account for more than half ofnew power sourcesgoing on line.

  Some growth stems from a commitment bygovernments and farsighted Businssesto fundcleanerenergy sources.But increasinglythestoryisabout theplummeting prices of renewables,especially wind and solar.The cost of solarpanels has dropped by 80 percent and the cost of wind turbines by close taone-third in the past eight years.

  In many parts of the world renewable energy is already a principal energy source.In Scotland,for example, wind turbines provide enough electricity to power 95 percent of homes. While the rest of the world takes the lead, notably China and Europe, the United States is also seeing a remarkable shift. In March,for the first time,wind and solar power accounted for more than 10 percent of the power generated in the US,reported the US Energy Information Administration.

  President Trump has underlined fossil fuels - especially coal - as the path to economic growth. In a recent speech in Iowa, he dismissed wind power as an unreliable energy source, But that message did not play well with many in Iowa,where wind turbines dot the fields and provide 36 percent of the state's electricity generation - and where tech giants like Microsoft are being attracted by the availability of clean energy to power their data centers.

  The question “what happens when the wind doesn't blow or the sun doesn'tshine?" has provided a quick put-down for skeptics. But a boost in the storage apacity of batteries is making their ability to keep power flowing around the clock more likely.

  The advance is driven in par by vehicle manufacturers, who are placing big bets on battery-powered electric vehicles. Although electric cars are still a rarity on roads now. this massive investment could change the picture rapidly in coming years.

  While there's a long way to go,the trend lines for renewables are spiking. The pace of change in energy sources appears to be speeding up perhaps: just in time to have a meaningful effect in slowing climate change.What Washington does-or doesn't do- to promote alternative energy may mean less and less a time of a global shift in thought.

  26.The word "plummeting"(Line 3,Para.2)is closest in meaning to ______

  A.stabilizing

  B.changing

  C.falling

  D.rising

  27. According to Paragraph 3,the use of renewable energy in America ______

  A. is progressing notably

  B. is as extensive as in Europe

  C. faces many challenges

  D. has proved to be impractical

  28. It can be learned that in Iowa,

  ______.

  A. wind is a widely used energy source

  B. wind energy has replaced fossil fuels

  C. tech giants are investing in clean energy

  D. there is a shortage of clean energy supply

  29. Which of the following is true about clean energy according to Paragraphs 5&6?A. Its application has boosted battery storage.B. It is commonly used in car manufacturing.C. Its continuous supply is becoming a reality.D. Its sustainable exploitation will remain difficult. 30. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that renewable energy _____.

  A. will bring the US closer to other countries

  B. will accelerate global environmental change

  C. is not really encouraged by the US government

  D. is not competitive enough with regard to its cost

  30. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that renewable energy _____.

  A. will bring the US closer to other countries

  B. will accelerate global environmental change

  C. is not really encouraged by the US government

  D. is not competitive enough with regard to its cost

  26.答案 C falling

  这是一道词义句意题,要想知道plummeting 的意思,首先要回到原文找线索,即plummeting所在的句子以及上下句,由原文可知,plummeting所在句子是在说现在例如风能和太阳能这样的可再生资源的价格的问题,plummeting是修饰可再生资源的价格的,接着二段最后一句就在用具体数字来证明可再生资源的成本在下降,如太阳能成本下降了百分之八十,风能也降到三分之一,由此可知,可再生资源的成本在下降,plummeting的含义是下降的意思。所以选择C falling。

  27. 答案 A is progressing notably

  这是一道具体细节题,根据题干关键词定位至第三段第三句及第四句,意思是“在中国和欧洲等国家已经领先时,美国也在见证着巨大的改变。根据美国能源信息局报道,三月份,美国首次使用风能和太阳能产生了超过百分之十以上的能源。”这足以说明在美国,可再生能源的使用正在取得显著地进步。所以答案是A。

  28. 答案 A wind is a widely used energy source

  这是一道细节推断题,根据题干关键词定位至第四段第三句,在爱荷华州,风力涡轮机点缀着这个州并提供了此州百分之三十六的电能,并且还吸引了像微软这样的科技巨头公司。因此可判断,在爱荷华州,风能是一种广泛使用的能源。所以答案是A。

  29.答案 C its continuous supply is becoming a reality

  这是一道是非细节题,根据题干给出的段落位置,5-6两段和主题词clean energy,回到原文的第5-6段,这两段都不长,第五段出现了But后讲到电池容量的提升a boost in the storage,与A选项不符,并不是因果关系,故排除;B选项说道广泛用在制造业也不符合原文第六段第一句;而D选项和原文第六段最后一句是语义相反的,故也排除;正确选项C是和这句话语义一致的,也是和全文主题一致的,故为正确答案。

  30.答案C is not really encouraged by the US government

  这是一道细节推断题,题干问“根据最后一段可以推断出来可再生能源怎么了”,回到原文最后一段第一句就表明尽管还有很长一段路要走,可再生能源发展的趋势在增强。后面也提到改变的节奏在加快,对slowing气候变化有meaningful effect,所以可以看出B选项accelerate...是不对的,D选项中提到的价格不具有竞争力不在本段当中,也应排除。剩下的两个选项都提到了美国,就应该重点看最后一句,最后一句提到华盛顿政府做或不做什么都may mean less and less...所以可以看出美国不应该是和其他国家更近,排除A,所以选C,美国不是真正支持可再生能源的。


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