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2018年考研英语一真题及答案(完整版)

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  2018年考研英语一真题及答案(完整版)

  Section I Use of English

  Directions:

  Read the following text. Choose the best word (s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on the ANSWER SHEET. (10 points)

  Trust is a tricky business. On the one hand, it's a necessary condition _____(1) many worthwhile things: child care, friendships, etc. On the other hand, putting your _____(2)in the wrong place often carries a high _____(3).

  _____(4), why do we trust at all? Well, because it feels good. _____(5) people place their trust in an individual or an institution, their brains release oxytocin, a hormone that _____(6) pleasurable feelings and triggers the herding instruct that leads sheep to flock together for safety and prompts humans to _____(7) with one another. Swiss Scientists have found that exposure _____(8) this hormone puts us in a trusting _____(9): In a study, researchers sprayed oxytocin into the noses of half the subjects; those subjects were ready to lend significantly higher amounts of money to strangers than were their _____(10) who inhaled something else.

  _____(11) for us, we also have a sixth sense for dishonesty that may _____(12) us. A Canadian study found that children as young as 14 months can differentiate _____(13) a credible person and a dishonest one. Sixty toddlers were each _____(14) to an adult tester holding a plastic container. The tester would ask, “What's in here?” before looking into the container, smiling, and exclaiming, “Wow!” Each subject was then invited to look _____ (15). Half of them found a toy; the other half _____ (16)the container was empty-and realized the tester had _____(17) them.

  Among the children who had not been tricked, the majority were _____ (18) to cooperate with the tester in learning a new skill, demonstrating that they trusted his leadership. _____ (19), only five of the 30 children paired with the "_____(20)"tester participated in a follow-up activity.

  1. A.on B.like C.for D.from

  2. A.faith B.concern C.attention D.interest

  3. A.benefit B.debt C.hope D.price

  4. A.Therefore B.Then C.Instead D.Again

  5. A.Until B.Unless C.Although D.When

  6. A.selects B.produces C.applies D.maintains

  7. A.consult B.compete C.connect D.compare

  8. A.at B.by C.of D.to

  9. A.context B.mood C.period D.circle

  10. A.counterparts B.substitutes C.colleagues D.supporters

  11. A.Funny B.Lucky C.Odd D.Ironic

  12. A.monitor B.protect C.surprise D.delight

  13. A.between B.within C.toward D.over

  14. A.transferred B.added C.introduced D.entrusted

  15. A.out B.back C.around D.inside

  16. A.discovered B.proved C.insisted D.remembered

  17. A.betrayed B.wronged C.fooled D.mocked

  18. A.forced B.willing C.hesitant D.entitled

  19. A.In contrast B.As a result C.On the whole D.For instance

  20. A.inflexible B.incapable C.unreliable D.unsuitable

  1.【答案】C

  【解析】该题选择的是介词,与后面的many worthwhile things一块做后置定语修饰前面的condition,表明对于许多重要事情来说是一个必要的条件。而A选项from(来自于),C选项like(像)D选项on(关于)均语义不搭。

  2.【答案】A

  【解析】此处考察语义一致和对上下文辨析的问题。该空是做put的宾语,通过前面的On the one hand, it's a necessary condition _____(1) many worthwhile things: child care, friendships, etc. (一方面,信任对许多重要事情来说是必要条件,比如照看孩子,友谊等);on the other hand 可以得知该题仍然是在讲述关于主题 trust的问题,所以只有faith(信任)最合适。而B选项concern(关心,关注),C选项attention(注意),D选项interest(兴趣,利益)均不符题意。

  3.【答案】D

  【解析】此处考察词义辨析。前文说到putting your _____in the wrong place often carries a high _____(把……放在错误的地方通常会带来巨大的……),可以知道该空肯定也是填贬义,但肯定不能是debt债务这种具体含义,所以只能选price,并且carries a high price也指付出高昂的代价。

  4.【答案】B

  【解析】此题考察上下文逻辑关系。上一段分析的是信任的利弊,该段所指内容_____, why do we trust at all? (我们为什么会要信任?)所以采用了递进关系,进一步说明信任的具体内容。只有D选项then(然后,那么)最符合语义搭配。而A选项again(再次)表示强调;B选项instead(然而)表转折;而C选项therefore(因此)表结果,均不符合。

  5. 【答案】D

  【解析】此处再一次考察逻辑关系。该空_____ people place their trust in an individual or an institution, their brains release oxytocin,a hormone(___人们信任一个人或者一个机构,大脑都会释放一种荷尔蒙),只有when(当……时)符合上下文语境和逻辑语境。

  6. 【答案】B

  【解析】该题是考察定语从句的动宾搭配问题。上一句说当人们产生信任感,大脑就会产生一种荷尔蒙,a hormone that _____(6) pleasurable feelings这个that就是定语从句,指这种荷尔蒙能_____令人愉悦的感觉,只能是produce 最符合语境。

  7.【答案】C

  【解析】考察词义辨析。该空所填为动词,并且要求与之后的with形成搭配。and triggers the herding instruct that leads sheep to flock together for safety and prompts humans to _____with one another. 说明这种荷尔蒙能够引发一种群居本能,这种本能能让羊群聚在一起,and的后面的内容也与前面的flock together同义复现。所以只有connect最符合语境。

  8. 【答案】D

  【解析】该题考察固定搭配。与exposure to构成固定搭配的关系。表示“接触”

  9. 【答案】B

  【解析】该题考察上下文语义。上文中说到这种荷尔蒙会给人带来一种愉悦的情绪,通过这个结论,可以得出这种荷尔蒙能让人有让人信任的情绪/心绪。只有mood是最合适的答案。

  10.【答案】A

  【解析】此处仍然是考察上下文语境。上文中In a study, researchers sprayed oxytocin into the noses of half the subjects; 能从下文得知这也是只本句讲另外一组受试者。conuterparts表示对应物,对应的人。

  11.【答案】B

  【解析】此处考察上下文逻辑关系。从后文中的also可以看出前后一致的关系。前文对于这种天赋都是褒义的色彩,所以答案此时应该是lucky。

  12.【答案】B

  【解析】同样也是因为also,说明前后一致关系。只能选择protect.

  13.【答案】A

  【解析】考察固定搭配。A Canadian study found that children as young as 14 months can differentiate _____ a credible person and a dishonest one. 选则between 意为:14个月大的孩子能在诚实和不诚实的人之间进行区分。

  14.【答案】C

  【解析】考察搭配。结合原文语境,“Sixty toddlers were each__to adult tester holding a plastic container”选项C“be introduced to sth ”表示“初次认识某物。”符合原文语境。

  15.【答案】D

  【解析】本题考察借此搭配及词义复现。根据原文“what’s in here?”before looking into the container...Each subject was then invited to ___.” 选项D与前文所表达的in here和looking into相关。因此D为正选。

  16.【答案】A

  【解析】本题考察词义复现。根据语境“half of them found a toy; the other half 16 the container was empty...”这是用分好并列连接的两个句子,属于并列关系。因此,前半句讲一般的受测者在盒子里面找到了玩具,后半句在肯定其他人会怎么说。像个小分局的结构基本一直。因此本题填入的含义应该与found 含义相同。因此,A选项发现为正选。

  17.【答案】C

  【解析】根据本题语境,此句在破折号后面,是对前面的意思解释说明。前面提到了另一半人发现盒子是空的,并且易世达测试者对他们怎么样。既然盒子是空的,那么肯定认识到测试者是在戏弄他们,所以对此题必须要理解测试者是主语,宾语是Them 指的是受测者。主语的含义决定了谓语的含义为戏弄。因此C选项为正选。

  18.【答案】B

  【解析】考察搭配。根据句子结构我们可以看出逗号之前是一个介词短语,意为在所有没有被戏弄过的孩子里面,大多数的孩子在习得一种新技能的时候与测试者的合作是如何的。Demonstrating that they trusted his leadership 表明这些孩子信任他的领导。因此,既然信任他们就表示愿意合作。所B选项willing to do 构成固定搭配。

  19.【答案】A

  【解析】本题考察逻辑关系。根据原文语境“”only five of the 30 children paried with the “20” tester participated in a follow-up activity.” 通过该句中的only,可以看出与上文的“大多数”形成鲜明对比。因此,本题应该选择转折逻辑关系。A选项为正选。

  20.【答案】C

  【解析】本题考察词义辨析。根据原文语境;在接下来的活动中,30个孩子中有5个孩子与...样的测试者能合作,所以结合上文提到的大部分孩子信任测试者,但是5/30属于小部分,大部分测试者对应的是信任,而小部分应该对应的是不信任。因此,C选项“不可靠”为正选。

  Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension

  Part A

  Directions:

  Read the following four texts. Answer the questions below each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on the ANSWER SHEET. (40 points)

  Text 1

  Among the annoying challenges facing the middle class is one that will probably go unmentioned in the next presidential campaign: What happens when the robots come for their jobs?

  Don't dismiss that possibility entirely. About half of U.S. jobs are at high risk of being automated, according to a University of Oxford study, with the middle class disproportionately squeezed. Lower-income jobs like gardening or day care don't appeal to robots. But many middle-class occupations-trucking, financial advice, software engineering — have aroused their interest, or soon will. The rich own the robots, so they will be fine.

  This isn't to be alarmist. Optimists point out that technological upheaval has benefited workers in the past. The Industrial Revolution didn't go so well for Luddites whose jobs were displaced by mechanized looms, but it eventually raised living standards and created more jobs than it destroyed. Likewise, automation should eventually boost productivity, stimulate demand by driving down prices, and free workers from hard, boring work. But in the medium term, middle-class workers may need a lot of help adjusting.

  The first step, as Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee argue in The Second Machine Age, should be rethinking education and job training. Curriculums —from grammar school to college- should evolve to focus less on memorizing facts and more on creativity and complex communication. Vocational schools should do a better job of fostering problem-solving skills and helping students work alongside robots. Online education can supplement the traditional kind. It could make extra training and instruction affordable. Professionals trying to acquire new skills will be able to do so without going into debt.

  The challenge of coping with automation underlines the need for the U.S. to revive its fading business dynamism: Starting new companies must be made easier. In previous eras of drastic technological change, entrepreneurs smoothed the transition by dreaming up ways to combine labor and machines. The best uses of 3D printers and virtual reality haven't been invented yet. The U.S. needs the new companies that will invent them.

  Finally, because automation threatens to widen the gap between capital income and labor income, taxes and the safety net will have to be rethought. Taxes on low-wage labor need to be cut, and wage subsidies such as the earned income tax credit should be expanded: This would boost incomes, encourage work, reward companies for job creation, and reduce inequality.

  Technology will improve society in ways big and small over the next few years, yet this will be little comfort to those who find their lives and careers upended by automation. Destroying the machines that are coming for our jobs would be nuts. But policies to help workers adapt will be indispensable.

  21.【题干】Who will be most threatened by automation?

  【选项】

  A.Leading politicians.

  B.Low-wage laborers.

  C.Robot owners.

  D.Middle-class workers.

  21答案D Middle-class workers

  这是一道具体细节题,题干问道“那些人受自动化威胁最大?”根据段落定位原则,第一题应该到第一段和第二段寻找答案,A选项主要的政治领导人,而原文只是在一段提到了presidential campaign,并未提到政治领导人受自动化影响;B选项低收入劳动者,在二段说道lower-income jobs don’t appeal to robots,说明不会受到影响;C选项机器人的所有者,在二段末句提到the rich own the robots, so they will be fine. 可以看到他们也是不受影响的;故选择C,可以从二段的But后找到根据。

  22 . 【题干】Which of the following best represent the author's view?

  【选项】

  A.Worries about automation are in fact groundless.

  B.Optimists' opinions on new tech find little support.

  C.Issues arising from automation need to be tackled

  D.Negative consequences of new tech can be avoided

  22答案C Issues arising from automation need to be tackled

  这是一道作者观点细节题,题干问道“下列哪项最能代表作者观点”根据上一题可知,这道题应该从第三段寻找答案,这种题一般到首句、末句或转折后寻找观点。首句就说到上面提到的威胁不是alarmist危言耸听的;末句提到中产阶级工人需要很多帮助来调整自己。根据这两部分可知选项C是正确的,A选项说对自动化的担心是groundless的和文意相反;B选项说乐观主义者对新技术的支持几乎没有找到支持不符合本段第二句和第三句,与原文相反;D选项新技术的负面影响可以避免与本段末句不符,既然需要中产阶级去适应,那就说明是不可避免的,也应排除。

  23.【题干】Education in the age of automation should put more emphasis on_____.

  【选项】

  A.creative potential.

  B.job-hunting skills.

  C.individual needs.

  D.cooperative spirit.

  23答案A creative potential

  这是一道具体细节题,题干问到“自动化时代的教育应该重视什么”可定位到第四段,第一句就提到了应对这个时代的第一步就是rethinking education and job training。具体方法在后面也给出来了,curriculums should focus more on creativity and complex communication,更重视创新和复杂的交际,故A选项是正确的。这道题的对应非常直接,其他几个选项几乎不构成干扰。

  24.【题干】The author suggests that tax policies be aimed at_____.

  【选项】

  A.encouraging the development of automation.

  B.increasing the return on capital investment.

  C.easing the hostility between rich and poor.

  D.preventing the income gap from widening.

  24.答案D.preventing the income gap from widening.

  这是一道观点细节题,问作者认为税收政策应该以什么为目标。根据题干关键词定位至第六段,六段首句说因为自动化预示着劳资双方的收入在扩大,所以,税收和安全保障也将必须重新考虑。接着第二句就在具体解释税收政策该如何改变,如应该免去低工资工人的税,个人所得税应该增加,最后一句话指出,这将提高收入,鼓励就业,激励那些创造就业的公司,减少不平等。由此可得知,关于税收政策的目标就是阻止收入差距扩大,答案是D。

  25. 【题干】In this text, the author presents a problem with_____.

  【选项】

  A.pposing views on it.

  B.possible solutions to it.

  C.its alarming impacts.

  D.its major variations.

  25. 答案B.possible solutions to it.

  纵观全文,作者在前两段提出了一个问题,即自动化将威胁到中产阶级工人的工作,第三段指出乐观主义者认为这也许对工人们是有利的,只不过中产阶级工人可能需要做出一定的改变。从第四段到第六段就是作者给出的一些解决办法,如教育上要改变,培养学生的创造性和实际技能,以及对于税收政策的调整等,最后一段是概括总结,所以这是一篇提出问题,分析问题并解决问题的文章,所以,答案是B,作者提出了问题,并且给出了可能的解决措施。


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