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2019考研英语二阅读理解真题及答案解析text3

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  美国劳动力缺乏,要么进口食品,要么进口劳动力。小编为大家提供2019考研英语二阅读理解真题及答案解析text3,一起来看看吧!

  2019考研英语二阅读理解真题text3

  Text 3

  American farmers have been complaining of labor shortages for several years now. Given a multi-year decline in illegal immigration, and a similarly sustained pickup in the U.S. job market, the complaints are unlikely to stop without an overhaul of immigration rules for farm workers.

  Efforts to create a more straightforward agricultural-workers visa that would enable foreign workers to stay longer in the U.S. and change jobs within the industry have so far failed in Congress. If this doesn’t change, American businesses, communities and consumers will be the losers.

  Perhaps half of U.S. farm laborers are undocumented immigrants. As fewer such workers enter the U.S., the characteristics of the agricultural workforce are changing. Today’s farm laborers, while still predominantly born in Mexico, are more likely to be settled, rather than migrating, and more likely to be married than single. They are also aging. At the start of this century, about one-third of crop workers were over the age of 35. Now, more than half are. And crop picking is hard on older bodies.

  One oft-debated cure for this labor shortage remains as implausible as it has been all along: Native U.S. workers won’t be returning to the farm.

  In a study published in 2013, economist Michael Clemens analyzed 15 years of data on North Carolina’s farm-labor market and concluded, “There is virtually no supply of native manual farm laborers” in the state. This was true even in the depths of a severe recession.

  Mechanization is not the answer either—not yet at least. Production of corn, cotton, rice, soybeans and wheat have been largely mechanized, but many high-value, labor-intensive crops, such as strawberries, need labor. Even dairy farms, where robots currently do only a small share of milking, have a long way to go before they are automated.

  As a result, farms have grown increasingly reliant on temporary guest workers using the H-2A visa to fill the gaps in the agricultural workforce. Starting around 2012, requests for the visas rose sharply; from 2011 to 2016 the number of visas issued more than doubled.

  The H-2A visa has no numerical cap, unlike the H-2B visa for nonagricultural work, which is limited to 66,000 annually. Even so, employers frequently complain that they aren’t allotted all the workers they need. The process is cumbersome, expensive and unreliable. One survey found that bureaucratic delays led H-2A workers to arrive on the job an average of 22 days late. And the shortage is compounded by federal immigration raids, which remove some workers and drive others underground.

  Petitioning each year for laborers—and hoping the government provides enough, and that they arrive on time—is no way to run a business. In a 2012 survey by the California Farm Bureau, 71 percent of tree-fruit growers and nearly 80 percent of raisin and berry growers said they were short of labor. Some western growers have responded by movingoperations to Mexico. Without reliable access to a reliable workforce, more growers will be tempted to move south.

  According to a report by the Partnership for a New American Economy, Americans are consuming more fresh produce, which is good. But a rising share of it is grown elsewhere. In 1998-2000, 14.5 percent of the fruit Americans consumed was imported. Little more than a decade later, the share of imported fruit had increased to 25.8 percent. Rural U.S. communities that might have benefited didn’t.

  In effect, the U.S. can import food or it can import the workers who pick it. The U.S. needs a simpler, streamlined, multi-year visa for agricultural workers, accompanied by measures to guard against exploitation and a viable path to U.S. residency for workers who meet the requirements. Otherwise growers will continue to struggle with shortages and uncertainty, and the country as a whole will lose out.

  31.What problem should be addressed according to the first two paragraphs?

  A. discrimination against foreign workers in the U.S.

  B. biased laws in favor of some American businesses.

  C. flaws in US immigration rules for farm workers.

  D. decline of job opportunities in US agriculture.

  32. One trouble with US. Agriculture workforce is___

  A. the rising number of illegal immigrants.

  B. the high mobility of crop workers.

  C. the lack of experienced labors.

  D. the aging of immigrant farm workers.

  33. What is the much-argued solution to the labor shortage in US farming?

  A. To attract younger laborers to farm work.

  B. To get native US workers back to farming.

  C. To use more robots to grow high-value crops.

  D. To strengthen financial support for famers.

  34. Agriculture employers complain about the H-2A visa for its____?

  A. slow granting procedures.

  B. limit on duration of stay.

  C. tightened requirements.

  D. control of annual admissions.

  35. Which of the following could be the best title for this text?

  A. US Agriculture in Decline.

  B. Import Food or Labor?

  C. America Saved by Mexico?

  D. Manpower vs. Automation?

  2019考研英语二阅读理解答案解析text3

  31. 答案 C. flaws in US immigration rules for farm workers.

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。题目问的是应该被解决的问题是什么,所以先定位到第一段,在第二句话中有提到,在没有对于农场工人相关的移民规则进行彻底修订之前,抱怨是不会停止的。由此可见,之所以抱怨是因为有问题。所以,问题就和移民规则有关。选项C就有提到,其中flaw就是问题,瑕疵的意思。

  32. 答案 D. the aging of immigrant farm workers.

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。题目问的是美国农业劳动力的问题之一是什么。根据段落定位到第三段,在倒数第三句有提到,他们也正在变老。后面举例说世纪初的时候,三分之一的工人是35岁以上,现在是超过一半。这和选项C的内容不谋而合。

  33. 答案 B. To get native US workers back to farming.

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。题目问的是美国农业劳动力缺乏的解决方案是什么。根据段落定位到第四段,这种劳动力缺乏的解决方案之一仍旧是一如既往的不合理,冒号后面提到本土的工人是不会回到农场的。由此可见,解决方法就是让美国人自己去干活。这和选项B是一样的。

  34. 答案 A. slow granting procedures.

  解析:本题目为细节题,考察具体细节。题目问的是农场主们抱怨H-2A的原因是什么。根据专有名词定位在第7和8段,又根据题干另一关键词employer可以直接定位在第8段的第二句话:雇主们经常抱怨说他们分配不到所有需要的工人。紧接着就提到了过程很繁琐,昂贵和不可靠。所以,他们不满的就是这个过程,对应到了procedure.

  35. 答案 B. Import Food or Labor?

  解析:本题目为主旨题。文章在第一段就提到美国劳动力缺乏,紧接着提到了现状以及解决方案的不足,然后在最后一段进行总结,美国要么进口食品,要么进口劳动力。所以选项B最概括,最全面。

  小编精心为您推荐:

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