Grade inflation—the gradual increase in average GPAs (grade-point averages) over the past few decades—is often considered a product of a consumer era in higher education, in which students are treated like customers to be pleased. But another, related force—a policy often buried deep in course catalogs called "grade forgiveness"— is helping raise GPAs.
Grade forgiveness allows students to retake a course in which they received a low grade, and the most recent grade or the highest grade is the only one that counts in calculating a student’s overall GPA.
The use of this little-known practice has accelerated in recent years, as colleges continue to do their utmost to keep students in school (and paying tuition) and improve their graduation rates. When this practice first started decades ago, it was usually limited to freshmen, to give them a second chance to take a class in their first year if they struggled in their transition to college-level courses. But now most colleges, save for many selective campuses, allow all undergraduates, and even graduate students, to get their low grades forgiven.
College officials tend to emphasize that the goal of grade forgiveness is less about the grade itself and more about encouraging students to retake courses critical to their degree program and graduation without incurring a big penalty. “Untimely,” said Jack Miner, Ohio State University’s registrar, “we see students achieve more success because they retake a course and do better in subsequent contents or master the content that allows them to graduate on time.”
That said, there is a way in which grade forgiveness satisfies colleges’ own needs as well. For public institutions, state funds are sometimes tied partly to their success on metrics such as graduation rates and student retention—so better grades can, by boosting figures like those, mean more money. And anything that raises GPAs will likely make students—who, at the end of the day, are paying the bill—feel they’ve gotten a better value for their tuition dollars, which is another big concern for colleges.
Indeed, grade forgiveness is just another way that universities are responding to consumers’ expectations for higher education. Since students and parents expect a college degree to lead to a job, it is in the best interest of a school to turn out graduates who are as qualified as possible—or at least appear to be. On this, students’ and colleges' incentives seem to be aligned.
26. What is commonly regarded as the cause of grade inflation?
A. The change of course catalogs.
B. Students' indifference to GPAS.
C. Colleges' neglect of GPAS.
D. The influence of consumer culture.
27. What was the original purpose of grade forgiveness?
A. To help freshmen adapt to college learning.
B. To maintain colleges' graduation rates.
C. To prepare graduates for a challenging future.
D. To increase universities' income from tuition.
28. According to Paragraph 5, grade forgiveness enables colleges to
A. obtain more financial support.
B. boost their student enrollments.
C. improve their teaching quality.
D. meet local governments' needs.
29. What does the phrase "to be aligned"(Line 5, Para. 6) most probably mean?
A. To counterbalance each other.
B. To complement each other.
C. To be identical with each other.
D. To be contradictory to each other.
30. The author examines the practice of grade forgiveness by
A. assessing its feasibility.
B. analyzing the causes behind it.
C. comparing different views on it.
D. listing its long-run effects.
26. 答案【D】 The influence of consumer culture.
解析：本题目为原因细节题，考察具体细节。根据题干关键词grade inflation定位到第一段第一句。Grade inflationis often considered a product of a consumer era in higher education，in which students are treated like customers to be pleased通常被认为是高等教育消费时代的产物在这个时代，学生被当作顾客来对待。确答案D的The influence of consumer culture.顾客文化的影响，为原文的同意替换，consumer为原词。A 选项 The change of course catalogs. 课程目录的变更，原文并未提及提到了教育，但没有课程的变更，属于干扰选项。干扰项B的 Students' indifference to GPAS. 学生对GPAS莫不关心和选项C的Colleges' neglect of GPAS 学生忽视GPAS，为无关信息;
27. 答案【A】 To help freshmen adapt to college learning.
解析：本题目为细节题，考察具体细节。根据题干关键词 original purpose of grade forgiveness定位到第三段第二句， this practice指代上文的grade forgiveness，, it was usually limited to freshmen, to give them a second chance to take a class in their first year...给她们第二次机会去上课，正确选项A To help freshmen adapt to college learning.帮助新生适应大学学习，为原文的同意表达，选项B To maintain colleges' graduation rates.维持大学毕业率，选项C To prepare graduates for a challenging future 为毕业生准备迎接充满挑战的未来。 选项D To increase universities' income from tuition.增加大学学费收入，均不正确
28. 答案【A】 obtain more financial support.
解析：本题目为细节题，考察具体细节。根据题干关键词 Paragraph 5, grade forgiveness enables colleges定位到第五段第一，二句话，That said, there is a way in which grade forgiveness satisfies colleges’ own needs as well. 满足了大学生自己的需要，具体需要在第二句， For public institutions, state funds are sometimes tied partly to their success on metrics such as graduation rates and student retention对于公共机构来说，国家基金有时与它们在毕业率和学生留校率等指标上的成功有部分联系。so better grades can, mean more money所以好的成绩意味着更多的钱。正确选项A obtain more financial support.获得更多财政上的支持， financial替换more money
29 答案【C】 To be identical with each other
解析：本题目为猜词题，考察学生对上下文的理解。根据题干信息Line 5, Para. 6精准定位到第六段最后一句，在这一点上，学生和大学的激励措施似乎是什么样的，我们应该定位到上一句话，因为学生和家长都希望大学学位能带来一份工作，所以培养出尽可能合格的毕业生，或者至少看起来，符合学校的最佳利益。由此可知，学校和学生有着共同的目标，C To be identical with each other彼此一致，A To counterbalance each other.互相制衡。B互相补充D To be contradictory to each other 互相矛盾，只有C符合原文。
30 答案【B】analyzing the causes behind it.
解析：本题目为主旨，表面问作者怎么样来探讨grade forgiveness的实际操作，其实是考全文主旨。前两段都是谈及背后的原因，第五段，第一句That said, there is a way in which grade forgiveness satisfies colleges’ own needs as well也是说grade forgiveness能够满足大学自身的需求，也是分析了grade forgiveness的原因，正确选项B analyzing the causes behind it.分析了背后的原因。